Temperament

temperconstitutedGood temperheavy-temperedinfant temperamentquick tempershort-fusetemperamental characteristicstemperaments
In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and are relatively independent of learning, system of values and attitudes.wikipedia
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Humorism

humorshumoursfour humours
Historically, the concept of temperament (originally "temperamentums" in Latin means "mixtures") was a part of the theory of the four humors, with their corresponding four temperaments. Historically, in the second century A.D., the physician Galen described four temperaments (melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine and choleric) based upon the four humours or bodily fluids. In more recent history, Rudolf Steiner had emphasized the importance of the four classical temperaments in elementary education, the time when he believed the influence of temperament on the personality to be at its strongest.
Hippocrates and then Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament (behavioural) type.

Ivan Pavlov

PavlovIvan Petrovich PavlovPavlovian
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.
Most of his work involved research in temperament, conditioning and involuntary reflex actions.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
The specific behaviors are: activity level, regularity of sleeping and eating patterns, initial reaction, adaptability, intensity of emotion, mood, distractibility, persistence and attention span, and sensory sensitivity.
Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.

Jerome Kagan

behavioural inhibition
Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have concentrated empirical research on a temperamental category termed "reactivity." In addition to the initial clinical studies, academic psychologists have developed an interest in the field and researchers such as Bates, Buss & Plomin, Kagan, Rusalov, Cloninger, Trofimova and Rothbart have generated large bodies of research in the areas of personality, neuroscience, and behavioral genetics.
Kagan has shown that an infant's "temperament" is quite stable over time, in that certain behaviors in infancy are predictive of certain other behavior patterns in adolescence.

Mood (psychology)

moodmoodsatmosphere
The specific behaviors are: activity level, regularity of sleeping and eating patterns, initial reaction, adaptability, intensity of emotion, mood, distractibility, persistence and attention span, and sensory sensitivity.
Mood also differs from temperament or personality traits which are even longer-lasting.

Mary K. Rothbart

Mary Rothbart
Mary K. Rothbart views temperament as the individual personality differences in infants and young children that are present prior to the development of higher cognitive and social aspects of personality.
She is known for her research in the fields of Temperament and Social Development, Emotional Development, and Development of Attention.

Stella Chess

Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, Herbert G. Birch, Margaret Hertzig and Sam Korn began the classic New York Longitudinal study in the early 1950s regarding infant temperament (Thomas, Chess & Birch, 1968).
Chess was known for conducting the New York Longitudinal Study, which concluded that children's temperaments are determined before they are born, and not by the parenting they receive.

Vladimir Rusalov

Rusalov
In addition to the initial clinical studies, academic psychologists have developed an interest in the field and researchers such as Bates, Buss & Plomin, Kagan, Rusalov, Cloninger, Trofimova and Rothbart have generated large bodies of research in the areas of personality, neuroscience, and behavioral genetics.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Rusalov (born 5 October 1939) - Russian psychologist and anthropologist who was first to develop a temperament model within the Activity-specific approach.

Arnold H. Buss

Arnold Buss
His work has been carried forward by Arnold Buss and Robert Plomin, who developed two measures of temperament: The Colorado Child Temperament Inventory, which includes aspects of Thomas and Chess's schema, and the EAS Survey for Children.
Arnold Herbert Buss (born August 7, 1924) is a professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin known for his work in aggression, temperament, self-consciousness and shyness.

Anger

wrathangryIrate
Negative affect includes fear, frustration, sadness, discomfort, and anger.
In The Canon of Medicine, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) modified the theory of temperaments and argued that anger heralded the transition of melancholia to mania, and explained that humidity inside the head can contribute to such mood disorders.

Frustration

frustratedwhinea lack of social reward
Negative affect includes fear, frustration, sadness, discomfort, and anger.
Some people are predisposed towards feelings of frustration, indexed in terms of temperament (frustration), in adolescence and neuroticism in adulthood.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Psychologist

psychologistsclinical psychologistresearch psychologist
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Psychiatrist

psychiatristsclinical psychiatristconsultant psychiatrist
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Hermann Lotze

LotzeRudolf Hermann LotzeTeleological idealism
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Carl Jung

JungCarl Gustav JungC. G. Jung
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Gerardus Heymans

Gerard HeymansCube of Heymans
This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others.

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
More recently, scientists seeking evidence of a biological basis of personality have further examined the relationship between temperament and neurotransmitter systems and character (defined in this context as developmental aspects of personality).

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
Historically, in the second century A.D., the physician Galen described four temperaments (melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine and choleric) based upon the four humours or bodily fluids.

Rudolf Steiner

SteinerDr. Rudolf SteinerSteiner, Rudolf
In more recent history, Rudolf Steiner had emphasized the importance of the four classical temperaments in elementary education, the time when he believed the influence of temperament on the personality to be at its strongest.

Activity-specific approach in temperament research

Activity-specific approachactivity-specific model of temperament
The latest version of this model is based on the "Activity-specific approach in temperament research, on Alexander Luria's research in clinical neurophysiology and on the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament. At the present time the model is associated with the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and has 12 scales:

Alexander Luria

LuriaA. R. LuriaA.R. Luria
The latest version of this model is based on the "Activity-specific approach in temperament research, on Alexander Luria's research in clinical neurophysiology and on the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament. At the present time the model is associated with the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and has 12 scales:

Functional Ensemble of Temperament

The latest version of this model is based on the "Activity-specific approach in temperament research, on Alexander Luria's research in clinical neurophysiology and on the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament. At the present time the model is associated with the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and has 12 scales: