Tennessee Valley Authority

TVA poster at Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum
Tennessee Valley Authority Surplus/Deficit
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the TVA Act
TVA's first board (L to R): Harcourt Morgan, Arthur E. Morgan, and David E. Lilienthal
Workers at the site of Norris Dam, the first hydroelectric dam built by the TVA, circa 1933
A carpenter (wearing a contractor's employee badge) at work during the 1942 construction of the Douglas Dam in East Tennessee.
John Sevier Fossil Plant in Hawkins County circa 1956
Considered one of the TVA's most ambitious projects, Timberlake, a planned city along the Tellico Reservoir was proposed to support 30,000 residents. The project was cancelled following soon after the Tellico Project's controversy.
Artistic rendering of the small modular reactor (SMR) facility at the Clinch River Nuclear Site, the first of several to be constructed as part of TVA's New Nuclear Program approved in early 2022.
The twin cooling towers and reactor containment buildings of TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Plant north of Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Ronald Reagan, fired by General Electric after criticizing TVA.

Federally owned electric utility corporation in the United States.

- Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA poster at Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum

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Knoxville, Tennessee

City in and the county seat of Knox County in the U.S. state of Tennessee.

City in and the county seat of Knox County in the U.S. state of Tennessee.

James White's Fort in downtown Knoxville
Statue representing the signing of the Treaty of the Holston in Downtown Knoxville
The Craighead-Jackson House in Knoxville, built in 1818
Engraving of a Confederate soldier firing at Union supporter Charles Douglas on Gay Street in Knoxville in late 1861
Photograph showing the aftermath of the Siege of Knoxville, December 1863
Early-1900s photograph of the Republic Marble Quarry near Knoxville
Child labor at Knoxville Knitting Works, photographed by Lewis Wickes Hine in 1910
Kingston Pike, circa 1910, with the former Cherokee Bridge
Gay Street in the early 1900s
Research laboratory at U.T. in the early 1940s
The Sterchi Lofts building, formerly Sterchi Brothers Furniture store, the most prominent building on Knoxville's "100 Block"
The Sunsphere, with riders aboard a nearby sky-lift during the 1982 World's Fair
Downtown Knoxville, with the Great Smoky Mountains rising in the distance, viewed from Sharp's Ridge
Downtown Knoxville, viewed from the south waterfront
Tennessee Amphitheater in Knoxville, 2015
Tennessee Theatre
Krutch Park in Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville Police Department headquarters
The University of Tennessee at Knoxville is the state's flagship public university.
Lawson McGhee Library
The James White Parkway connects I-40 with Downtown Knoxville.
Bridges over the Tennessee River
Knoxville and Holston River Railroad MP15AC #2002 leads a train through Tyson Park near downtown Knoxville.

Knoxville is also home to the headquarters of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for East Tennessee, and the corporate headquarters of several national and regional companies.

Tennessee

State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

Detail of Tanasi (spelled "Tennessee") on Henry Timberlake's [[:File:Draught of the Cherokee Country.jpg|Draught of the Cherokee Country]]
Reconstruction of Fort Loudoun, the first British settlement in Tennessee
The Southwest Territory in 1790
Surveyor Daniel Smith's "Map of the Tennassee State" (1796)
The Hermitage, plantation home of President Andrew Jackson in Nashville
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864
Memphis became known as the "Cotton Capital of the World" in the years following the Civil War
Workers at the Norris Dam construction camp site in 1933
Calutron operators at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge during the Manhattan Project
The 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville
The Ocoee River was home to the 1996 Summer Olympics whitewater slalom events, the only Olympic sporting event ever held in the state.
Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains is the tallest mountain in eastern North America, measured from base to summit
Fall Creek Falls, the tallest waterfall in the eastern United States, is located on the Cumberland Plateau
Reelfoot Lake in West Tennessee was formed by the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes
Cedar glades are an extremely rare ecosystem that is found in regions of Middle Tennessee where limestone bedrock is close to the surface
Köppen climate types of Tennessee, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
A geomap showing the counties of Tennessee colored by the relative range of that county's median income.
Chart showing poverty in Tennessee, by age and gender (red = female)
A Nissan Leaf, one of six models manufactured at the Nissan Smyrna Assembly Plant, the largest automotive assembly plant in North America
Established in 1942, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the largest national laboratory in the Department of Energy system
Norris Dam, a hydroelectric dam operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
The resort city of Gatlinburg borders the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which is the most visited national park in the United States.
The Grand Ole Opry, which was recorded in Nashville's Ryman Auditorium from 1943 to 1974, is the longest-running radio broadcast in US history.
Vanderbilt University in Nashville is consistently ranked as one of the top research institutions in the nation
Offices of The Tennessean in Nashville
Interstate 40 traverses Tennessee from east to west, and serves the state's three largest cities.
Memphis International Airport, the hub of FedEx Corporation, is the busiest cargo airport in the world
Tennessee State Capitol in Nashville
Al Gore served as a United States Senator from Tennessee (1985-1993) and as Vice President of the United States (1993-2001)
Howard Baker served as Senate Minority and Majority Leader from 1977 to 1985, and was known as "The Great Conciliator"
Tennessee Volunteers football

This was aided in part by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and the city of Oak Ridge, which was established during World War II to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities for the construction of the world's first atomic bombs.

Muscle Shoals, Alabama

Largest city in Colbert County, Alabama, United States.

Largest city in Colbert County, Alabama, United States.

FAME Recording Studios in Muscle Shoals (photograph by Carol M. Highsmith)

Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration during the Great Depression, the Tennessee Valley Authority was established to create infrastructure and jobs, resulting in electrification of a large rural area along the river.

The New Deal was the inspiration for President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society in the 1960s: Johnson (on right) headed the Texas NYA and was elected to Congress in 1938

New Deal

Series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.

Series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939.

The New Deal was the inspiration for President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society in the 1960s: Johnson (on right) headed the Texas NYA and was elected to Congress in 1938
US annual real GDP from 1910 to 1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted
Top left: The TVA Act signed into law in 1933
Top right: President Franklin D. Roosevelt led the New Dealers;
Bottom: A public mural from the arts program
Unemployment rate in the United States from 1910–1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted (accurate data begins in 1939)
1935 cartoon by Vaughn Shoemaker in which he parodied the New Deal as a card game with alphabetical agencies
Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression
Roosevelt's ebullient public personality, conveyed through his declaration that "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" and his "fireside chats" on the radio did a great deal to help restore the nation's confidence
Public Works Administration Project Bonneville Dam
Pumping water by hand from the sole water supply in this section of Wilder, Tennessee (Tennessee Valley Authority, 1942)
National Recovery Administration Blue Eagle
Manufacturing employment in the U.S. from 1920 to 1940
A poster publicizing Social Security benefits
Works Progress Administration (WPA) poster promoting the LaGuardia Airport project (1937)
Female factory workers in 1942, Long Beach, California
National debt as gross national product climbs from 20% to 40% under President Herbert Hoover; levels off under Roosevelt; and soars during World War II from Historical States US (1976)
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) camp for unemployed women in Maine, 1934
Anti-relief protest sign near Davenport, Iowa by Arthur Rothstein, 1940
WPA employed 2 to 3 million unemployed at unskilled labor
U.S. GDP annual pattern and long-term trend (1920–1940) in billions of constant dollars
Francis Perkins looks on as Roosevelt signs the National Labor Relations Act
The federal government commissioned a series of public murals from the artists it employed: William Gropper's Construction of a Dam (1939) is characteristic of much of the art of the 1930s, with workers seen in heroic poses, laboring in unison to complete a great public project
"Created Equal": Act I, Scene 3 of Spirit of 1776, Boston (Federal Theatre Project, 1935)
The WPA hired unemployed teachers to provide free adult education programs
Surplus Commodities Program, 1936

Several organizations created by New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC), the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power–producing facility of any kind.

Hydroelectricity

Electricity produced from hydropower.

Electricity produced from hydropower.

The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power–producing facility of any kind.
Museum Hydroelectric power plant ″Under the Town″ in Serbia, built in 1900.
The Warwick Castle water-powered generator house, used for the generation of electricity for the castle from 1894 until 1940
A micro-hydro facility in Vietnam
Pico hydroelectricity in Mondulkiri, Cambodia
Measurement of the tailrace and forebay rates at the Limestone Generating Station in Manitoba, Canada.
The Ffestiniog Power Station can generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the demand arising.
Merowe Dam in Sudan. Hydroelectric power stations that use dams submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir. These changes to land color or albedo, alongside certain projects that concurrently submerge rainforests, can in these specific cases result in the global warming impact, or equivalent life-cycle greenhouse gases of hydroelectricity projects, to potentially exceed that of coal power stations.
The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility, with an installed capacity of 2,080 MW.
World renewable energy share (2008)
Trends in the top five hydroelectricity-producing countries
Share of electricity production from hydropower, 2020

Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development, and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created.

Norris c. 1910

George W. Norris

American politician from the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.

American politician from the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.

Norris c. 1910
George W. Norris, US Representative from Nebraska.
FDR (center) signs the Rural Electrification Act with Congressman John E. Rankin (left) and Norris (right)

He is best known for his sponsorship of the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933 during the Great Depression.

David E. Lilienthal before a Senate committee in 1937

David E. Lilienthal

David E. Lilienthal before a Senate committee in 1937
David E. Lilienthal listens to testimony at a Congressional hearing in 1938 called to investigate charges brought against the TVA by its former chair, Arthur E. Morgan.
David E. Lilienthal (right) met with General Leslie R. Groves (left), Director of the Manhattan Project, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on October 1, 1946, to discuss the transfer of responsibility for atomic energy to the new Atomic Energy Commission, which President Harry S. Truman nominated Lilienthal to chair.

David Eli Lilienthal (July 8, 1899 – January 15, 1981) was an American attorney and public administrator, best known for his Presidential Appointment to head Tennessee Valley Authority and later the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC).

East Tennessee

One of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law.

One of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law.

Hills in East Tennessee
Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains is the tallest mountain in eastern North America, measured from base to summit
Major landforms of East Tennessee
Early settlers of East Tennessee developed a unique type of double-cantilever barn, which evolved from an earlier design in Pennsylvania.
June 1861 Ordinance of Secession vote in East Tennessee. Counties shaded in maroon rejected secession by an 80% or greater margin. Counties in red rejected secession by a 51% to 79% margin. Counties in gray voted for secession. Counties in white didn't yet exist or their results are unknown.
Re-enactment of the Battle of Bean's Station in Bean Station
Millworkers in Chattanooga, photographed by Lewis Wickes Hine in 1910
Engineering plans for Norris Dam in Anderson County, which was the first project completed by the TVA in 1936
Monument to the twelve African American students who integrated Clinton High School in 1956
The 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville was the last successful international exposition held in the U.S.
Musicians performing on the streets of Maynardville, circa 1935
Watts Bar Nuclear Plant in Rhea County is home to the newest operating nuclear reactors in the United States.
Riders aboard the roller-coaster Thunderhead at Dollywood, which is among the most popular theme parks in the United States.
U.S. Route 25E serves as both Corridor S of the Appalachian Development Highway System and the East Tennessee Crossing Byway.

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), created by Congress during the Great Depression in the 1930s, spurred economic development and helped to modernize the region's economy and society.

Map of the Tennessee Watershed

Tennessee Valley

Drainage basin of the Tennessee River and is largely within the U.S. state of Tennessee.

Drainage basin of the Tennessee River and is largely within the U.S. state of Tennessee.

Map of the Tennessee Watershed
The Upper Tennessee Valley, looking east from the edge of the Cumberland Plateau near Rockwood, Tennessee

Elizabethton, Tennessee, is a small city formerly known by the moniker "The City of Power" prior to the post World War II era of nuclear power production. It is located at the confluence of the Doe River and Watauga River downstream from the Watauga Reservoir and the Wilbur Reservoir. Both are maintained by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

Chattanooga, Tennessee

City in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia.

City in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia.

Chatype, the typeface used by Chattanooga
Battles of Chattanooga, November 24–25, 1863
Market Street in 1907
Downtown Chattanooga, viewed from Lookout Mountain
Child labor at Richmond Spinning Mill in Chattanooga, 1910. Photo by Lewis Hine.
Chickamauga Lock and Dam on the Tennessee River at Chattanooga
Contemporary extension of the Hunter Museum of American Art
Overlooking the grandstand and finish area at the 2008 Head of the Hooch
The Chattanooga Times Free Press headquarters
Flag of Chattanooga from 1923 to 2012
Flag of Chattanooga from 2012
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's Founders Hall in June 2007
Chattanooga Choo Choo
Chattanooga Choo Choo
Bridges in Chattanooga (In the foreground is the Walnut Street Bridge, immediately behind is the Market Street Bridge, and then in the background is the P.R. Olgiati Bridge.)
Market Street Bridge facing the North Shore
The Tennessee Aquarium's River Journey building
The Tennessee Aquarium's Ocean Journey building
Trail of Tears water steps off of Market Street, downtown Chattanooga
Coolidge Park
Walnut Street Bridge
Looking south towards Lookout Mountain

The largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system was created in 1933 by Congress.