Term logic

scholastic logicAristotelian logictraditional logiclogicAristotelianArisotelianAristotelian "syllogistic" calculusAristotelian rationalityAristotlecategorical reasoning
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.wikipedia
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Organon

Aristotelian logicAristotelianLogic
Aristotle's logical work is collected in the six texts that are collectively known as the Organon.
3. The Prior Analytics (Latin: Analytica Priora) introduces his syllogistic method (see term logic), argues for its correctness, and discusses inductive inference.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. For early modern logicians like Arnauld (whose Port-Royal Logic was the best-known text of his day), it is a psychological entity like an "idea" or "concept". Two of these texts in particular, namely the Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione, contain the heart of Aristotle's treatment of judgements and formal inference, and it is principally this part of Aristotle's works that is about term logic.
Aristotle's Organon, especially On Interpretation, gives a cursory outline of semantics which the scholastic logicians, particularly in the thirteenth and fourteenth century, developed into a complex and sophisticated theory, called Supposition Theory.

Proposition

propositionspropositionalclaim
The fundamental assumption behind the theory is that propositions are composed of two terms – hence the name "two-term theory" or "term logic" – and that the reasoning process is in turn built from propositions:
Aristotelian logic identifies a proposition as a sentence which affirms or denies a predicate of a subject with the help of a 'Copula'.

John Corcoran (logician)

John CorcoranCorcoran, JohnJohn Corcoran, PhD, DHC
The Jan Lukasiewicz approach was reinvigorated in the early 1970s by John Corcoran and Timothy Smiley – which informs modern translations of Prior Analytics by Robin Smith in 1989 and Gisela Striker in 2009.
A 2003 article provides a systematic comparison and critical evaluation of Aristotelian logic and Boolean logic; it also reveals the centrality of wholistic reference in Boole's philosophy of logic.

Port-Royal Logic

La Logique ou l’Art de PenserLogique de Port-RoyalPort-Royal ''Logique
For early modern logicians like Arnauld (whose Port-Royal Logic was the best-known text of his day), it is a psychological entity like an "idea" or "concept".
The Port-Royal Logic is sometimes cited as a paradigmatic example of traditional term logic.

Gisela Striker

The Jan Lukasiewicz approach was reinvigorated in the early 1970s by John Corcoran and Timothy Smiley – which informs modern translations of Prior Analytics by Robin Smith in 1989 and Gisela Striker in 2009.
She has written mostly on topics in Hellenistic philosophy (the epistemology and ethics of Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics) and on Aristotelian logic.

Logical quality

logical qualitiesQuality
The logical quality of a proposition is whether it is affirmative (the predicate is affirmed of the subject) or negative (the predicate is denied of the subject).
In Aristotle's term logic there are two logical qualities: affirmation (kataphasis) and denial (apophasis).

George Boole

BooleBoole, George Boole, George
19th-century attempts to algebraize logic, such as the work of Boole (1815–1864) and Venn (1834–1923), typically yielded systems highly influenced by the term-logic tradition.
A 2003 article provides a systematic comparison and critical evaluation of Aristotelian logic and Boolean logic; it also reveals the centrality of wholistic reference in Boole's philosophy of logic.

Quantifier (linguistics)

quantifiersquantifierquantification
In case where existential import is assumed, quantification implies the existence of at least one subject, unless disclaimed.
Term logic, also called Aristotelian logic, treats quantification in a manner that is closer to natural language, and also less suited to formal analysis.

Obversion

Obversion
In traditional logic, obversion is a "type of immediate inference in which from a given proposition another proposition is inferred whose subject is the same as the original subject, whose predicate is the contradictory of the original predicate, and whose quality is affirmative if the original proposition's quality was negative and vice versa".

Stoic logic

LogicThe Stoic logician
Stoic logic
Chrysippus's logic differed from Aristotle's term logic because it was based on the analysis of propositions rather than terms.

Quantifier (logic)

quantifierquantifiersquantification
Is unnatural in a sense, in that its syntax does not follow the syntax of the sentences that figure in our everyday reasoning. It is, as Quine acknowledged, "Procrustean," employing an artificial language of function and argument, quantifier, and bound variable.
Term logic, also called Aristotelian logic, treats quantification in a manner that is closer to natural language, and also less suited to formal analysis.

Propositional calculus

propositional logicpropositionalsentential logic
Propositional calculus
(Aristotelian "syllogistic" calculus, which is largely supplanted in modern logic, is in some ways simpler – but in other ways more complex – than propositional calculus.) The most immediate way to develop a more complex logical calculus is to introduce rules that are sensitive to more fine-grained details of the sentences being used.

Transposition (logic)

transpositioncontrapositivelogical transposition
Transposition (logic)
In traditional logic the reasoning process of transposition as a rule of inference is applied to categorical propositions through contraposition and obversion, a series of immediate inferences where the rule of obversion is first applied to the original categorical proposition "All S is P"; yielding the obverse "No S is non-P".

Converse (logic)

converseconverselyconversion
Converse (logic)
Term logic

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotelianism

AristotelianAristotelian philosophyAristotelians
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelianismAristote
Aristotle's logical work is collected in the six texts that are collectively known as the Organon. In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.

Mathematical logic

formal logicsymbolic logiclogic
This entry is an introduction to the term logic needed to understand philosophy texts written before it was replaced as a formal logic system by predicate logic.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
This entry is an introduction to the term logic needed to understand philosophy texts written before it was replaced as a formal logic system by predicate logic.

Terminology

termtermsterminologies
Readers lacking a grasp of the basic terminology and ideas of term logic can have difficulty understanding such texts, because their authors typically assumed an acquaintance with term logic.

Prior Analytics

SyllogismAnalytica Prioraanalyticorum priorum librum 1
Two of these texts in particular, namely the Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione, contain the heart of Aristotle's treatment of judgements and formal inference, and it is principally this part of Aristotle's works that is about term logic.

De Interpretatione

On InterpretationInterpretationPeri hermeneias
Two of these texts in particular, namely the Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione, contain the heart of Aristotle's treatment of judgements and formal inference, and it is principally this part of Aristotle's works that is about term logic.

Inference

inferredinferlogical inference
Two of these texts in particular, namely the Prior Analytics and De Interpretatione, contain the heart of Aristotle's treatment of judgements and formal inference, and it is principally this part of Aristotle's works that is about term logic.

Jan Łukasiewicz

ŁukasiewiczJ. LukasiewiczJan '''Ł'''ukasiewicz
The Jan Lukasiewicz approach was reinvigorated in the early 1970s by John Corcoran and Timothy Smiley – which informs modern translations of Prior Analytics by Robin Smith in 1989 and Gisela Striker in 2009. Modern work on Aristotle's logic builds on the tradition started in 1951 with the establishment by Jan Lukasiewicz of a revolutionary paradigm.