Terrestrial planet

terrestrial planetsrockyrocky planetterrestrialEarth-sizedEarth-like planetsrocky planetsEarth-likeEarth-sizerocky composition
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.wikipedia
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Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanemo
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Planets are generally divided into two main types: large low-density giant planets, and smaller rocky terrestrials.

Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar Systemouter planets
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest and most massive of the four rocky planets.

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition.

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, and is a rocky body like Earth.

Planetary surface

surfaceEarth's surfacesolid surfaces
Terrestrial planets have a solid planetary surface, making them substantially different from the larger gaseous planets, which are composed mostly of some combination of hydrogen, helium, and water existing in various physical states.
Planetary surfaces are found on solid objects of planetary mass, including terrestrial planets (including Earth), dwarf planets, natural satellites, planetesimals and many other small Solar System bodies (SSSBs).

Silicate

silicatessilicasilicified
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Such silicates comprise most of Earth's crust and mantle, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids.

Mantle (geology)

mantleEarth's mantlemantles
All terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core, mostly iron, with a surrounding silicate mantle.
All terrestrial planets (including Earth), a number of asteroids, and some planetary moons have mantles.

Planetary core

corecorescenter of the Earth
All terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core, mostly iron, with a surrounding silicate mantle.
The cores of the rocky planets were initially characterized by analyzing data from spacecraft, such as NASA's Mariner 10 that flew by Mercury and Venus to observe their surface characteristics.

Iron

FeFe 2+ Fe(III)
All terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core, mostly iron, with a surrounding silicate mantle.
Iron's abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space.

Europa (moon)

EuropaEuropanLife on Europa
Io and Europa are also satellites that have internal structures similar to that of terrestrial planets.
Its bulk density suggests that it is similar in composition to the terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of silicate rock.

4 Vesta

Vesta(4) VestaAsteroidal Gravity Optical and Radar Analysis
The rocky minor planet Vesta orbiting outside of Mars is less dense than Mars still at, 3.4 g·cm −3.
Vesta is the only known remaining rocky protoplanet (with a differentiated interior) of the kind that formed the terrestrial planets.

Secondary atmosphere

secondary
Terrestrial planets have secondary atmospheres, generated through volcanism or comet impacts, in contrast to the giant planets, whose atmospheres are primary, captured directly from the original solar nebula.
It is characteristic of terrestrial planets, which includes the other terrestrial planets in the Solar System: Mercury, Venus, and Mars.

Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
Terrestrial planets have secondary atmospheres, generated through volcanism or comet impacts, in contrast to the giant planets, whose atmospheres are primary, captured directly from the original solar nebula.
These rocky bodies would become the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars).

Gliese 581 planetary system

Gliese 581 systemGliese 581ff
From 2007 to 2010, three (possibly four) potential terrestrial planets were found orbiting within the Gliese 581 planetary system.
The system's notability is due primarily to early exoplanetology discoveries, between 2008 and 2010, of possible terrestrial planets orbiting within its habitable zone and the system's relatively close proximity to the Solar System at 20 light years away.

Kepler-10b

bKepler 10b
The first confirmed terrestrial exoplanet, Kepler-10b, was found in 2011 by the Kepler Mission, specifically designed to discover Earth-size planets around other stars using the transit method.
Kepler-10b is the first confirmed terrestrial planet to have been discovered outside the Solar System by the Kepler Space Telescope.

Gliese 581d

Gliese 581 dd
Two others, Gliese 581c and Gliese 581d, as well as a disputed planet, Gliese 581g, are more-massive super-Earths orbiting in or close to the habitable zone of the star, so they could potentially be habitable, with Earth-like temperatures.
Though not confirmed to be a terrestrial planet and significantly more massive than Earth (at 6.98 Earth masses), the Super-Earth is the first exoplanet of terrestrial mass proposed to orbit within the habitable zone of its parent star.

Kepler space telescope

KeplerKepler MissionKepler Space Observatory
The first confirmed terrestrial exoplanet, Kepler-10b, was found in 2011 by the Kepler Mission, specifically designed to discover Earth-size planets around other stars using the transit method. In the same year, the Kepler Space Observatory Mission team released a list of 1235 extrasolar planet candidates, including six that are "Earth-size" or "super-Earth-size" (i.e. they have a radius less than 2 Earth radii) and in the habitable zone of their star.
Designed to survey a portion of Earth's region of the Milky Way to discover Earth-size exoplanets in or near habitable zones and estimate how many of the billions of stars in the Milky Way have such planets, Kepler's sole scientific instrument is a photometer that continually monitored the brightness of approximately 150,000 main sequence stars in a fixed field of view.

List of exoplanets discovered using the Kepler space telescope

List of planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraftList of exoplanets discovered using the Kepler spacecraftKepler-377c
Since then, Kepler has discovered hundreds of planets ranging from Moon-sized to super-Earths, with many more candidates in this size range (see image).
Based on some of the planet's sizes, about 550 could potentially be rocky planets.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
This includes four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars), two gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn), and two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune).

HD 85512 b

bGliese 370 b
Another possibly terrestrial planet, HD 85512 b, was discovered in 2011; it has at least 3.6 times the mass of Earth.
Due to its mass of at least 3.6 times the mass of Earth, HD 85512 b is classified as a rocky Earth-size exoplanet (

Gliese 876 d

d
In 2005, the first planets orbiting a main-sequence star and which show signs of being terrestrial planets, were found: Gliese 876 d and OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb.
The low mass of the planet has led to suggestions that it may be a terrestrial planet.

Dwarf planet

dwarf planetsList of dwarf planetsplanet
Dwarf planets, such as Ceres, Pluto and Eris, and small Solar System bodies are similar to terrestrial planets in the fact that they do have a solid surface, but are, on average, composed of more icy materials (Ceres, Pluto and Eris have densities of 2.17, 1.87 and 2.52 g·cm −3, respectively, and Haumea's density is similar to Pallas's 2.8 g·cm −3 ).
A gap of five orders of magnitude in Λ was found between the smallest terrestrial planets and the largest asteroids and Kuiper belt objects.

Circumstellar habitable zone

habitable zonehabitable zonesGoldilocks zone
In the same year, the Kepler Space Observatory Mission team released a list of 1235 extrasolar planet candidates, including six that are "Earth-size" or "super-Earth-size" (i.e. they have a radius less than 2 Earth radii) and in the habitable zone of their star.
On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way.