A report on Terrestrial television

Indoor "rabbit ears" antenna often used for terrestrial television reception. This model also has a loop antenna for UHF reception.
Rooftop television antennas like these are required to receive terrestrial television in fringe reception areas far from the television station.

Type of television (TV) broadcasting in which the signal transmission occurs via radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth-based) transmitter of a TV station to a TV receiver having an antenna.

- Terrestrial television
Indoor "rabbit ears" antenna often used for terrestrial television reception. This model also has a loop antenna for UHF reception.

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Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store in 2008

Television

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Telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound.

Telecommunication medium for transmitting moving images and sound.

Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store in 2008
The Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes that may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black displays the region scanned.
Baird in 1925 with his televisor equipment and dummies "James" and "Stooky Bill" (right)
Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates electronic television (1929)
Ad for the beginning of experimental television broadcasting in New York City by RCA in 1939
Indian-head test pattern used during the black-and-white era before 1970. It was displayed when a television station first signed on every day.
Samsung LED TV
Color bars used in a test pattern, sometimes used when no program material is available.
A smart TV
A modern high gain UHF Yagi television antenna. It has 17 directors, and one reflector (made of 4 rods) shaped as a corner reflector.
Coaxial cable is used to carry cable television signals into cathode-ray tube and flat panel television sets.
DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex.
RCA 630-TS, the first mass-produced television set, which sold in 1946–1947
A 14-inch cathode-ray tube showing its deflection coils and electron guns
The Christie Mirage 5000, a 2001 DLP projector.
A generic LCD TV, with speakers on either side of the screen.
OLED TV
Comparison of 8K UHDTV, 4K UHDTV, HDTV and SDTV resolution
Television sets per 1000 people of the world
Television was still in its experimental phase in 1928, but the medium's potential to sell goods was already predicted.
American family watching television, circa 1958

At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i.e., there were only a small number of channels available, government regulation was the norm.

A DirecTV satellite dish

Satellite television

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Service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

Service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

A DirecTV satellite dish
Back view of a linear polarised LNB.
Satellite television diagram
A DTH Satellite dish from India.
DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex.
A C-band satellite dish used by TVRO systems.

It is usually the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service.

A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises

Cable television

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System of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fibre-optic cables.

System of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fibre-optic cables.

A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises
A set-top box, an electronic device which cable subscribers use to connect the cable signal to their television sets. Presented unit is a Cisco RNG200N for QAM digital cable television system used in North America.
A cable television distribution box (left) in the basement of a building in Germany (Kabel BW network, now Vodafone), with a splitter (right) which supplies the signal to separate cables which go to different rooms
Diagram of a modern hybrid fiber-coaxial cable television system. At the regional headend, the TV channels are sent multiplexed on a light beam which travels through optical fiber trunklines, which fan out from distribution hubs to optical nodes in local communities. Here the light signal from the fiber is translated to a radio frequency electrical signal, which is distributed through coaxial cable to individual subscriber homes.

This contrasts with broadcast television (also known as terrestrial television), in which the television signal is transmitted over-the-air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted over-the-air by radio waves from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth, and received by a satellite dish antenna on the roof.

VHF television antennas used for broadcast television reception. These six antennas are a type known as a Yagi antenna, which is widely used at VHF

Very high frequency

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ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter.

ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter.

VHF television antennas used for broadcast television reception. These six antennas are a type known as a Yagi antenna, which is widely used at VHF
"Rabbit-ears" VHF television antenna (the small loop is a separate UHF antenna).
A VHF television broadcasting antenna. This is a common type called a super turnstile or batwing antenna.
A plan showing VHF use in television, FM radio, amateur radio, marine radio and aviation.

Common uses for radio waves in the VHF band are Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) and FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two-way land mobile radio systems (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometers with radio modems, amateur radio, and marine communications.

A broadcasting antenna in Stuttgart

Broadcasting

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Distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum , in a one-to-many model.

Distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum , in a one-to-many model.

A broadcasting antenna in Stuttgart
A television studio production control room in Olympia, Washington, August 2008.
An "On Air" sign is illuminated, usually in red, while a broadcast or recording session is taking place
Radio Maria studio in Switzerland.
Radio station WTUL studio, Tulane University, New Orleans

Over the air broadcasting is usually associated with radio and television, though more recently, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable (cable television).

M VIEW IPTV device

Internet Protocol television

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Delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

Delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

M VIEW IPTV device
A simplified network diagram for IPTV
Bandwidth capacity for simultaneously two HDTV streams, two SD streams, additional to HSD and voice

This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial, satellite, and cable television formats.

Cerro de Punta, Puerto Rico's highest peak, and its TV transmission towers

Television station

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Set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content and audio content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to any number of tuned receivers simultaneously.

Set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content and audio content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to any number of tuned receivers simultaneously.

Cerro de Punta, Puerto Rico's highest peak, and its TV transmission towers

A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals.

A map depicting digital terrestrial television standards

Digital television

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Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) uses coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and supports hierarchical transmission. This standard has been adopted in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, for a total of approximately 60 countries.

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) uses coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and supports hierarchical transmission. This standard has been adopted in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, for a total of approximately 60 countries.

A map depicting digital terrestrial television standards
Comparison of image quality between ISDB-T (1080i broadcast, top) and NTSC (480i transmission, bottom)

Each commercial broadcasting terrestrial television DTV channel in North America is permitted to be broadcast at a bit rate up to 19 megabits per second.

A live television show set and cameras

Television show

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A live television show set and cameras
Tamvisio's camera operators film a television program at Frenckell's studio on January 2, 1965, in Tampere, Finland.
Arthur Schlesinger Jr.

A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, or cable, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.

A Winegard 68 element VHF/UHF aerial antenna. This common multi-band antenna type uses a UHF Yagi at the front and a VHF log-periodic at the back coupled together.

Television antenna

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A Winegard 68 element VHF/UHF aerial antenna. This common multi-band antenna type uses a UHF Yagi at the front and a VHF log-periodic at the back coupled together.
West-German TV penetration in East Germany.
Very common "rabbit ears" indoor antenna. This model also has a loop antenna for UHF reception.
A short antenna pole next to a house.
Multiple Yagi TV aerials
Two aerials set up on a roof. Spaced horizontally and vertically
A UHF television antenna
A rabbit ear indoor antenna weatherproofed and installed outdoors

A television antenna (TV aerial) is an antenna specifically designed for use with a television receiver (TV) to receive over-the-air broadcast television signals from a television station.