Tesla (unit)

Four measuring devices having metric calibrations

Derived unit of the magnetic B-field strength (also, magnetic flux density) in the International System of Units.

- Tesla (unit)
Four measuring devices having metric calibrations

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Portrait by Napoleon Sarony, 1890s

Nikola Tesla

Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

Portrait by Napoleon Sarony, 1890s
Rebuilt, Tesla's house (parish hall) in Smiljan, now in Croatia, region of Lika, where he was born, and the rebuilt church, where his father served. During the Yugoslav Wars, several of the buildings were severely damaged by fire. They were restored and reopened in 2006.
Tesla's baptismal record, 28 June 1856
Tesla's father, Milutin, was an Orthodox priest in the village of Smiljan.
Tesla aged 23, c. 1879
Edison Machine Works on Goerck Street, New York. Tesla found the change from cosmopolitan Europe to working at this shop, located amongst the tenements on Manhattan's lower east side, a "painful surprise".
Drawing from, illustrating the principle of Tesla's alternating current induction motor
Tesla's AC dynamo-electric machine (AC electric generator) in an 1888
Mark Twain in Tesla's South Fifth Avenue laboratory, 1894
Tesla demonstrating wireless lighting by "electrostatic induction" during an 1891 lecture at Columbia College via two long Geissler tubes (similar to neon tubes) in his hands
X-ray Tesla took of his hand
In 1898, Tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat which he hoped to sell as a guided torpedo to navies around the world.
Tesla sitting in front of a spiral coil used in his wireless power experiments at his East Houston St. laboratory
Tesla's Colorado Springs laboratory
A multiple exposure picture of Tesla sitting next to his "magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts. The 7 m long arcs were not part of the normal operation, but only produced for effect by rapidly cycling the power switch.
Tesla's Wardenclyffe plant on Long Island in 1904. From this facility, Tesla hoped to demonstrate wireless transmission of electrical energy across the Atlantic.
Tesla's bladeless turbine design
Second banquet meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 23 April 1915. Tesla is seen standing in the center.
Tesla on Time magazine commemorating his 75th birthday
Newspaper representation of the thought camera Tesla described at his 1933 birthday party
Room 3327 of the Hotel New Yorker, where Tesla died
Gilded urn with Tesla's ashes, in his favorite geometric object, a sphere (Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade)
Tesla c. 1896
Tesla c. undefined 1885
Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia
Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport was named after the scientist in 2006.
This Nikola Tesla statue in Zagreb, Croatia was made by Ivan Meštrović in 1954. It was located at the Ruđer Bošković Institute before it was moved to the Tesla street in the city center in 2006.
Nikola Tesla Corner in New York City
Nikola Tesla statue in Niagara Falls, Ontario

Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity following his death, until 1960, when the General Conference on Weights and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic flux density the tesla in his honor.

Bruker 700 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer.

Nuclear magnetic resonance

Physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a strong constant magnetic field are perturbed by a weak oscillating magnetic field (in the near field ) and respond by producing an electromagnetic signal with a frequency characteristic of the magnetic field at the nucleus.

Physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a strong constant magnetic field are perturbed by a weak oscillating magnetic field (in the near field ) and respond by producing an electromagnetic signal with a frequency characteristic of the magnetic field at the nucleus.

Bruker 700 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer.
Splitting of nuclei spin energies in an external magnetic field
An intuitive model. Nuclei with spin have magnetic moments (spin magnetic moments). By itself, there is no energetic difference for any particular orientation of the nuclear magnet (only one energy state, on the left), but in an external magnetic field there is a high-energy state and a low-energy state depending on the relative orientation of the magnet to the external field, and in thermal equilibrium, the low-energy orientation is preferred. The average orientation of the magnetic moment will precess around the field. The external field can be supplied by a large magnet and also by other nuclei in the vicinity.
900 MHz, 21.2 T NMR Magnet at HWB-NMR, Birmingham, UK
Medical MRI
Schematic diagram of a NMR Stopped Flow Probe

This process occurs near resonance, when the oscillation frequency matches the intrinsic frequency of the nuclei, which depends on the strength of the static magnetic field, the chemical environment, and the magnetic properties of the isotope involved; in practical applications with static magnetic fields up to ca. 20 tesla, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz).

Various examples of physical phenomena

Weber (unit)

SI derived unit of magnetic flux whose units are volt-second.

SI derived unit of magnetic flux whose units are volt-second.

Various examples of physical phenomena

A flux density of one Wb/m2 (one weber per square metre) is one tesla.

The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.

Gauss (unit)

Unit of measurement of magnetic induction, also known as magnetic flux density.

Unit of measurement of magnetic induction, also known as magnetic flux density.

The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.

The SI unit for magnetic flux density is the tesla (symbol T), which corresponds to.

Computer simulation of Earth's field in a period of normal polarity between reversals. The lines represent magnetic field lines, blue when the field points towards the center and yellow when away. The rotation axis of Earth is centered and vertical. The dense clusters of lines are within Earth's core.

Earth's magnetic field

Magnetic field that extends from Earth's interior out into space, where it interacts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

Magnetic field that extends from Earth's interior out into space, where it interacts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

Computer simulation of Earth's field in a period of normal polarity between reversals. The lines represent magnetic field lines, blue when the field points towards the center and yellow when away. The rotation axis of Earth is centered and vertical. The dense clusters of lines are within Earth's core.
Common coordinate systems used for representing the Earth's magnetic field.
Relationship between Earth's poles. A1 and A2 are the geographic poles; B1 and B2 are the geomagnetic poles; C1 (south) and C2 (north) are the magnetic poles.
The movement of Earth's North Magnetic Pole across the Canadian arctic.
An artist's rendering of the structure of a magnetosphere. 1) Bow shock. 2) Magnetosheath. 3) Magnetopause. 4) Magnetosphere. 5) Northern tail lobe. 6) Southern tail lobe. 7) Plasmasphere.
Background: a set of traces from magnetic observatories showing a magnetic storm in 2000.
Globe: map showing locations of observatories and contour lines giving horizontal magnetic intensity in μ T.
Estimated declination contours by year, 1590 to 1990 (click to see variation).
Strength of the axial dipole component of Earth's magnetic field from 1600 to 2020.
Geomagnetic polarity during the late Cenozoic Era. Dark areas denote periods where the polarity matches today's polarity, light areas denote periods where that polarity is reversed.
Variations in virtual axial dipole moment since the last reversal.
A schematic illustrating the relationship between motion of conducting fluid, organized into rolls by the Coriolis force, and the magnetic field the motion generates.
A model of short-wavelength features of Earth's magnetic field, attributed to lithospheric anomalies
Example of a quadrupole field. This can also be constructed by moving two dipoles together.

The intensity of the field is often measured in gauss (G), but is generally reported in microteslas (μT), with 1 G = 100 μT.

The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.

Magnetic field

Vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials.

Vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials.

The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.
Right hand grip rule: a current flowing in the direction of the white arrow produces a magnetic field shown by the red arrows.
A Solenoid with electric current running through it behaves like a magnet.
A sketch of Earth's magnetic field representing the source of the field as a magnet. The south pole of the magnetic field is near the geographic north pole of the Earth.
One of the first drawings of a magnetic field, by René Descartes, 1644, showing the Earth attracting lodestones. It illustrated his theory that magnetism was caused by the circulation of tiny helical particles, "threaded parts", through threaded pores in magnets.
Hans Christian Ørsted, Der Geist in der Natur, 1854

, magnetic flux density, is measured in tesla (in SI base units: kilogram per second2 per ampere), which is equivalent to newton per meter per ampere.

Magnetisation curve for ferromagnets (and ferrimagnets) and corresponding permeability

Permeability (electromagnetism)

Measure of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field.

Measure of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field.

Magnetisation curve for ferromagnets (and ferrimagnets) and corresponding permeability

the magnetic flux density B which acts back on the electrical domain, by curving the motion of charges and causing electromagnetic induction. The SI units of B are volt-seconds/square meter (teslas).

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

Magnetic resonance imaging

Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner
A mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England
Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MRI scans
Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen
MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts
MR angiogram in congenital heart disease
Magnetic resonance angiography
Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)

The field strength of the magnet is measured in teslas – and while the majority of systems operate at 1.5 T, commercial systems are available between 0.2 and 7 T. Most clinical magnets are superconducting magnets, which require liquid helium to keep them very cold.

A satellite view of Fermilab. The two circular structures are the Main Injector Ring (smaller) and Tevatron (larger).

Fermilab

United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

A satellite view of Fermilab. The two circular structures are the Main Injector Ring (smaller) and Tevatron (larger).
A satellite view of Fermilab. The two circular structures are the Main Injector Ring (smaller) and Tevatron (larger).
Robert Rathbun Wilson Hall
Prototypes of SRF cavities to be used in the last segment of PIP-II Linac
Muon g−2 building (white and orange) which hosts the magnet
Transportation of the 600 ton magnet to Fermilab
Interior of Wilson Hall
Two ion sources at the center with two high-voltage electronics cabinets next to them<ref name=35years>{{cite web |title=35 years of H{{sup|−}} ions at Fermilab |url=http://www-ad.fnal.gov/proton/PIP/Communicate/Calendar/Repository/2014/35%20years%20of%20H-%20ions%20at%20Fermilab.pdf |website=Fermilab |access-date=12 August 2015 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151018080322/http://www-ad.fnal.gov/proton/PIP/Communicate/Calendar/Repository/2014/35%20years%20of%20H-%20ions%20at%20Fermilab.pdf |archive-date=18 October 2015}}</ref>
Beam direction right to left: RFQ (silver), MEBT (green), first drift tube linac (blue)
A 7835 power amplifier that is used at the first stage of linac
A 12 MW klystron used at the second stage of linac
A cutaway view of the 805 MHz side-couple cavities<ref>{{cite conference |last1=May |first1=Michael P. |last2=Fritz |first2=James R. |last3=Jurgens |first3=Thomas G. |last4=Miller |first4=Harold W. |last5=Olson |first5=James |last6=Snee |first6=Daniel |title=Mechanical construction of the 805 MHz side couple cavities for the Fermilab Linac upgrade |conference=Linear Accelerator Conference |date=1990 |journal=Proceedings of the 1990 Linear Accelerator Conference |url=https://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/l90/papers/mo423.pdf |access-date=13 August 2015 |location=Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150707145718/http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/l90/papers/mo423.pdf |archive-date=7 July 2015}}</ref>
Booster ring<ref>{{cite web |title=Wilson Hall & vicinity |url=https://www.fnal.gov/pub/visiting/map/wilson.html |website=Fermilab |access-date=12 August 2015 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150917055551/http://www.fnal.gov/pub/visiting/map/wilson.html |archive-date=17 September 2015}}</ref>
Fermilab's accelerator rings. The main injector is in the foreground, and the antiproton ring and Tevatron (inactive since 2011) are in the background.

In 2021, the lab announced that its latest superconducting YBCO magnet could increase field strength at a rate of 290 tesla per second, reaching a peak magnetic field strength of around 0.5 tesla.

Artist's conception of a magnetar, with magnetic field lines

Magnetar

Artist's conception of a magnetar, with magnetic field lines
Artist's conception of a powerful magnetar in a star cluster
Neutron Star Types (24 June 2020)
Magnetar SGR 1900+14 (center of image) showing a surrounding ring of gas 7 light-years across in infrared light, as seen by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The magnetar itself is not visible at this wavelength but has been seen in X-ray light.
Artist's impression of a gamma-ray burst and supernova powered by a magnetar
On 27 December 2004, a burst of gamma rays from SGR 1806−20 passed through the Solar System (artist's conception shown). The burst was so powerful that it had effects on Earth's atmosphere, at a range of about 50,000 light-years.

A magnetar is a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field (∼109 to 1011 T, ∼1013 to 1015 G).