Testicular cancer

testiculartesticular tumortesticular carcinomatesticular neoplasmstestis cancerMalignant neoplasm of testistesticletesticular germ cell cancer.cancer of the testiclescancerous testicle
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.wikipedia
530 Related Articles

Cryptorchidism

undescended testesundescended testiclecryptorchid
Risk factors include an undescended testis, family history of the disease, and previous history of testicular cancer. Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.
Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer, and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

Orchiectomy

orchidectomysurgicalsurgical castration
Surgical removal of the testicle with examination under a microscope is then done to determine the type.
The surgery is typically performed as treatment for testicular cancer, in some cases of testicular torsion, as a gender-affirming procedure for some trans women, and in sometimes used in the management of advanced prostate cancer.

Semen quality

sperm qualityqualitysperm viability
Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.
Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

Infertility

infertilesterilesterility
Treatment may result in infertility.
Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men.

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

dysgenic testis
Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and poor semen quality make up the syndrome known as testicular dysgenesis syndrome.
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome is a male reproduction-related condition characterized by the presence of symptoms and disorders such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality, and testicular cancer.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
In combination with surgery, chemotherapy has proven useful in cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer and certain lung cancers.

Epididymitis

epididymo-orchitisinflammation of the epididymispain and swelling of one or both testicles
Conditions that may result in similar symptoms include testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, and testicular cancer.

Inguinal orchiectomy

surgical castrationsurgicalorchiectomy
The differential diagnosis of testicular cancer requires examining the histology of tissue obtained from an inguinal orchiectomy - that is, surgical excision of the entire testis along with attached structures (epididymis and spermatic cord).
The procedure is generally performed by a urologist, typically if testicular cancer is suspected.

Scrotum

scrotalscrotal skinprescrotal
Symptoms may include a lump in the testicle, or swelling or pain in the scrotum.

Gynecomastia

Gynaecomastiabreast enlargementbreast development
Important aspects of the physical examination include evaluation of the male breast tissue with palpation to evaluate for breast cancer and pseudogynecomastia (male breast tissue enlargement solely due to excess fatty tissue), evaluation of penile size and development, evaluation of testicular development and an assessment for masses that raise suspicion for testicular cancer, and proper development of secondary sex characteristics such as the amount and distribution of pubic and underarm hair.

Sex cord–gonadal stromal tumour

sex cord-stromal tumoursex cord-gonadal stromal tumourSex cord-stromal tumor
Other types include sex-cord stromal tumors and lymphomas.
In humans, this group accounts for 8% of ovarian cancers and under 5% of testicular cancers.

Germ cell tumor

germ cell tumorsteratocarcinomagerm cell cancer
The most common type is germ cell tumors which are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas.
Compared to germinomatous tumors, nongerminomatous tumors tend to grow faster, have an earlier mean age at time of diagnosis ( around 25 years versus 35 years, in the case of testicular cancers), and have a lower five-year survival rate.

Germ cell neoplasia in situ

intratubular germ cell neoplasia
The World Health Organization classification of testicular tumours subdivides ITGCN into (1) a more common, unspecified type (ITGCNU), and (2) other specific subtypes.

Testicle

testestestistesticles
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. The differential diagnosis of testicular cancer requires examining the histology of tissue obtained from an inguinal orchiectomy - that is, surgical excision of the entire testis along with attached structures (epididymis and spermatic cord).

Teratoma

teratomasMature teratomaa tumor
Although testicular cancer is most common among men aged 15–40 years, it has three peaks: infancy through the age of four as teratomas and yolk sac tumors, ages 25–40 years as post-pubertal seminomas and nonseminomas, and from age 60 as spermatocytic seminomas.
Testicular teratomas represent almost half of testicular cancers.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hCGchorionic gonadotropinhuman chorionic gonadotrophin
Alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin (the "pregnancy hormone"), and LDH-1 are the typical tumor markers used to spot testicular germ cell tumors.
For this reason, a positive result in males can be a test for testicular cancer.

Lactate dehydrogenase

LDHlactic acid dehydrogenaselactic dehydrogenase
Alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin (the "pregnancy hormone"), and LDH-1 are the typical tumor markers used to spot testicular germ cell tumors.

Cisplatin

Platinolcis''-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 cis-platinum
Since the introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy, chiefly platinum-based drugs like cisplatin and carboplatin, the outlook has improved substantially. The standard chemotherapy protocol is three, or sometimes four, rounds of Bleomycin-Etoposide-Cisplatin (BEP).
These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, brain tumors and neuroblastoma.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
The extent of the disease is evaluated by CT scans, which are used to locate metastases.
Current treatments are rarely able to cure metastatic cancer though some tumors, such as testicular cancer and thyroid cancer, are usually curable.

Granulosa cell tumour

granulosa cell tumorgranulosa tumorgranulosa-cell tumors
Although granulosa cells normally occur only in the ovary, granulosa cell tumours occur in both ovaries and testicles (see Ovarian cancer and Testicular cancer).

Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

retroperitoneal lymph nodes
This surgery is called retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND).
It is used to treat testicular cancer, as well as to help establish the exact stage and type of the cancer.

Michael Peckham

Michael John PeckhamSir Michael Peckham
BEP as a first-line treatment was first reported by Professor Michael Peckham in 1983.
As a cancer physician he is best known for his contribution to the treatment of testicular cancer.

Etoposide

(E)'''toposideE'''toposideEtopophos
The standard chemotherapy protocol is three, or sometimes four, rounds of Bleomycin-Etoposide-Cisplatin (BEP).
This includes testicular cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, and ovarian cancer.

Bleomycin

(B)'''leomycinBlenoxane
The standard chemotherapy protocol is three, or sometimes four, rounds of Bleomycin-Etoposide-Cisplatin (BEP).
This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others.