Tethytheria

tethytherestethythere
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.wikipedia
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Sirenia

sireniansea cowsirenians
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.
Sirenia, Proboscidae, and Desmotylia are grouped together in the clade Tethytheria.

Embrithopoda

embrithopodembrithopods
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.
As tethytheres, the Embrithopoda have been believed to be part of the clade Afrotheria.

Desmostylia

Paleoparadoxiidaedemostyliadesmostyle
Desmostylians, traditionally considered tethytheres, have been tentatively assigned to Perissodactyla, along with the Early Eocene family Anthracobunidae, which was considered a sister group to Tethytheria.
The Desmostylia, together with Sirenia and Proboscidea (and possibly Embrithopoda), have traditionally been assigned to the afrotherian clade Tethytheria, a group named after the paleoocean Tethys around which they originally evolved.

Odd-toed ungulate

Perissodactylaperissodactylsperissodactyl
Desmostylians, traditionally considered tethytheres, have been tentatively assigned to Perissodactyla, along with the Early Eocene family Anthracobunidae, which was considered a sister group to Tethytheria.
Their teeth also show similarities to Radinskya as well as to the Tethytheria clade.

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.

Proboscidea

proboscideanproboscidproboscideans
Tethytheria is a clade of mammals that includes the sirenians and proboscideans, as well as the extinct order Embrithopoda.

Monophyly

monophyleticmonophyletic groupnon-monophyletic
Though there is strong anatomical and molecular support for the monophyly of Tethytheria, the interrelationships between the included taxa remain disputed.

Orbit (anatomy)

orbitorbitseye socket
The tethytheres are united by several characters, including anteriorly facing orbits and more or less bilophodont cheek teeth (double transverse ridges on the crowns of the teeth).

Molar (tooth)

molarmolarsmolar teeth
The tethytheres are united by several characters, including anteriorly facing orbits and more or less bilophodont cheek teeth (double transverse ridges on the crowns of the teeth).

Petrous part of the temporal bone

petrous bonepetrous portionpetrous portion of the temporal bone
Proboscidea and Sirenia are linked together based on auditory characters in their petrosal bones, but this link may be a homoplasy.

Homoplasy

homoplastichomoplasiesconvergent evolution
Proboscidea and Sirenia are linked together based on auditory characters in their petrosal bones, but this link may be a homoplasy.

Anthracobunidae

anthracobunidanthracobunids
Desmostylians, traditionally considered tethytheres, have been tentatively assigned to Perissodactyla, along with the Early Eocene family Anthracobunidae, which was considered a sister group to Tethytheria.

Condylarth

CondylarthracondylarthsCondylarthra indet.
Tethytheria is thought to have evolved from primitive hoofed mammals ("condylarths") along the shores of the ancient Tethys Ocean.

Tethys Ocean

Tethys SeaTethysTethys domain
Tethytheria is thought to have evolved from primitive hoofed mammals ("condylarths") along the shores of the ancient Tethys Ocean.

Cladogram

cladogramscladistic analysiscladistic interpretation
Cladogram modified from and.

Dugongidae

Manatee