Tetragrammaton

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
YHWH in one of the Lachish letters
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE", which in contemporary letters is "IEUE".
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.
A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa
The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

Four-letter Hebrew theonym , the name of God in Judaism and Christianity.

- Tetragrammaton
The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

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Alpha

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne

Torah

Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne
Silver Torah case, Ottoman Empire, displayed in the Museum of Jewish Art and History
Reading of the Torah
One common formulation of the documentary hypothesis
The supplementary hypothesis, one potential successor to the documentary hypothesis
Presentation of The Torah, by Édouard Moyse, 1860, Museum of Jewish Art and History
Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey)
Page pointers, or yad, for reading of the Torah
Open Torah case with scroll.

One of its most significant verses is Deuteronomy 6:4, the Shema Yisrael, which has become the definitive statement of Jewish identity: "Hear, O Israel: the Tetragrammaton our God, the is one."

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

Jah

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

Jah or Yah (, Yāh) is a short form of יהוה (YHWH), the four letters that form the tetragrammaton, the personal name of God: Yahweh, which the ancient Israelites used.

13th century French manuscript; the words "Hallelu-Yah" at the end of Psalm 148 and at the start of Psalm 149 appear above and below the man's left-pointing hand.

Hallelujah

Interjection used as an expression of gratitude and adoration.

Interjection used as an expression of gratitude and adoration.

13th century French manuscript; the words "Hallelu-Yah" at the end of Psalm 148 and at the start of Psalm 149 appear above and below the man's left-pointing hand.

The second part, Yah, is a shortened form of YHWH (Yahweh or Jehovah in modern English).

Genesis 1:9: And God said, "Let the waters be collected."
Letters in black, niqqud  (vowel points) and  d'geshim  (gemination marks) in red, cantillation in blue.

Hebrew cantillation

Manner of chanting ritual readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.

Manner of chanting ritual readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.

Genesis 1:9: And God said, "Let the waters be collected."
Letters in black, niqqud  (vowel points) and  d'geshim  (gemination marks) in red, cantillation in blue.
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For example, the words qol qore bamidbar panu derekh YHWH (Isaiah 40:3) is translated in the Authorised Version as "The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD".

Biblical Hebrew

Archaic form of the Hebrew language, a language in the Canaanite branch of Semitic languages spoken by the Israelites in the area known as the Land of Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Archaic form of the Hebrew language, a language in the Canaanite branch of Semitic languages spoken by the Israelites in the area known as the Land of Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Coin issued during the Bar Kokhba revolt. The Paleo-Hebrew text reads שמעון "Simeon" on the front and לחרות ירושלם "for the freedom of Jerusalem" on the back.

Some Qumran texts written in the Assyrian script write the tetragrammaton and some other divine names in Paleo-Hebrew, and this practice is also found in several Jewish-Greek biblical translations.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script

Zeir Anpin

Revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.

Revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.

Arāmāyā in Syriac Esṭrangelā script

Its Tetragrammaton is YHVH (יהוה), the name of God in Judaism.

A 13th/14th-century scroll of the Book of Esther from Fez, Morocco, held at the Musée du quai Branly in Paris. Traditionally, a scroll of Esther is given only one roller, fixed to its lefthand side, rather than the two used for a Torah scroll.

Book of Esther

Book in the third section (Ketuvim, כְּתוּבִים "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible).

Book in the third section (Ketuvim, כְּתוּבִים "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible).

A 13th/14th-century scroll of the Book of Esther from Fez, Morocco, held at the Musée du quai Branly in Paris. Traditionally, a scroll of Esther is given only one roller, fixed to its lefthand side, rather than the two used for a Torah scroll.
Esther is crowned in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Mordecai is honoured in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld.
Scroll of Esther (Megillah)
The opening chapter of a hand-written scroll of the Book of Esther, with reader's pointer
The Feast of Esther (Feest van Esther, 1625) by Jan Lievens, North Carolina Museum of Art.

In the Book of Esther, the Tetragrammaton does not appear, but some argue it is present, in hidden form, in four complex acrostics in Hebrew: the initial or last letters of four consecutive words, either forwards or backwards comprise YHWH.

Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)

Yom Kippur

Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)
On the eve of Yom Kippur by Jakub Weinles
Cliffs of Mount Azazel
Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv, empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004
Sandy Koufax
Gabe Carimi

In most Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues, the entire congregation prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) would pronounce the Tetragrammaton (God’s holiest name, according to Judaism).

Shasu prisoner as depicted in Ramesses III's reliefs at Madinat Habu

Shasu

The Shasu (from Egyptian šꜣsw, probably pronounced Shaswe ) were Semitic-speaking cattle nomads in the Southern Levant from the late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age or the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

The Shasu (from Egyptian šꜣsw, probably pronounced Shaswe ) were Semitic-speaking cattle nomads in the Southern Levant from the late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age or the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Shasu prisoner as depicted in Ramesses III's reliefs at Madinat Habu
Egyptians beating Shasu spies (detail from the Battle of Kadesh wall-carving)

Some scholars link the Israelites and YHWH with the Shasu.

The Old English word 'hlaford' evolved into 'lord'

Lord

Appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler.

Appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler.

The Old English word 'hlaford' evolved into 'lord'
Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham, a Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom

English-language Old Testament translations such as the King James Version usually render the Hebrew name YHWH (the Tetragrammaton) as "the ". This usage follows the Jewish practice of substituting the spoken Hebrew word "Adonai" ("My Lords") for appearances of YHWH.