A report on Tetragrammaton

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120
The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite god Yahweh.
YHWH in one of the Lachish letters
Tetragrammaton written in paleo-Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE", which in contemporary letters is "IEUE".
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.
A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.
Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa
The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

Four-letter Hebrew theonym , the name of God in Judaism and Christianity.

- Tetragrammaton
The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

44 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Old English word 'hlaford' evolved into 'lord'

Lord

1 links

Appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler.

Appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler.

The Old English word 'hlaford' evolved into 'lord'
Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham, a Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom

English-language Old Testament translations such as the King James Version usually render the Hebrew name YHWH (the Tetragrammaton) as "the ". This usage follows the Jewish practice of substituting the spoken Hebrew word "Adonai" ("My Lords") for appearances of YHWH.

Trilingual road signs directing toward Mount Gerizim and Kiryat Luza (Shomronim – Samaritans in Hebrew)

Mount Gerizim

1 links

One of two mountains in the immediate vicinity of the West Bank city of Nablus and biblical city of Shechem.

One of two mountains in the immediate vicinity of the West Bank city of Nablus and biblical city of Shechem.

Trilingual road signs directing toward Mount Gerizim and Kiryat Luza (Shomronim – Samaritans in Hebrew)
Old City of Nablus and Mount Gerizim in background
Samaritans' Passover pilgrimage on Mount Gerizim.
Passover on Gerizim in the 1890s
Old view of Nablus and Mount Gerizim
Ruins on Mount Gerizim c1880.
Archaeological remnants on Mount Gerizim's summit

Inside this perimeter, thousands of pottery vessels and burned bones of animal sacrifices – sheep, goats, cattle and doves – were found, as well as many stones with inscriptions containing the Tetragrammaton (the name of God).

Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)

Yom Kippur

1 links

Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Holiest day of the year in Judaism.

Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878)
On the eve of Yom Kippur by Jakub Weinles
Cliffs of Mount Azazel
Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv, empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004
Sandy Koufax
Gabe Carimi

In most Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues, the entire congregation prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) would pronounce the Tetragrammaton (God’s holiest name, according to Judaism).

Photograph of section of the Zayit Stone, 10th century BCE: (right-to-left) the letters waw, he, het, zayin, tet

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

1 links

Writing system found in Canaanite inscriptions from the region of biblical Israel and Judah.

Writing system found in Canaanite inscriptions from the region of biblical Israel and Judah.

Photograph of section of the Zayit Stone, 10th century BCE: (right-to-left) the letters waw, he, het, zayin, tet
Paleo-Hebrew signet ring discovered in Jerusalem's City of David. City of David Archive, Eliyahu Yannai
Gezer calendar
Drawing of the Khirbet Qeiyafa ostracon
Illustration of script on one of the Ketef Hinnom scrolls, circa 700 BCE—the "Silver Scroll"
Coin from the Bar Kokhba revolt with the Paleo-Hebrew writings. The letters are on one side and on the other, meaning 'freedom to Jerusalem' and the name 'Shimon' (חרות לירושל[י]ם and שמע[ו]ן in modern Hebrew).
The word "Hebrew" (עברית ʿbryt, modern Hebrew: Ivrit) written in the modern Hebrew alphabet (top), and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
A page from the Samaritan version of Leviticus
YHD, for Yehud, written in Paleo-Hebrew on the 1 New Shekel coin (1986)
The Siloam inscription

In some Qumran documents, the tetragrammaton name of the Israelite deity, YHWH, is written in Paleo-Hebrew while the rest of the text is rendered in the adopted Aramaic square script that became today’s normative Jewish Hebrew script.

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever

1 links

Greek manuscript of a revision of the Septuagint dated to the 1st century CE.

Greek manuscript of a revision of the Septuagint dated to the 1st century CE.

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script
Col. B1–2 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr).

Clearly Jewish manuscripts of Greek translations of the Old Testament (Septuagint, Proto-Masoretic, kaige, the translations of Aquila of Sinope, Symmachus the Ebionite, Theodotion and the Hexapla) differ from clearly Christian manuscripts in not using Kύριος or the nomina sacra and (with a horizontal line above the contracted words) to represent the Tetragrammaton.

Zeir Anpin

1 links

Revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.

Revealed aspect of God in Kabbalah, comprising the emotional sephirot attributes: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod and Yesod.

Its Tetragrammaton is YHVH (יהוה), the name of God in Judaism.

Jewish magical papyri

0 links

Jewish magical papyri are a subclass of papyri with specific Jewish magical uses, and which shed light on popular belief during the late Second Temple Period and after in Late Antiquity.

Jewish magical papyri are a subclass of papyri with specific Jewish magical uses, and which shed light on popular belief during the late Second Temple Period and after in Late Antiquity.

Some "Jewish magical papyri" may not themselves be Jewish but syncretic invocations of the Tetragrammaton by non-Jews.

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

Kaige revision

1 links

Group of revisions to the Septuagint made in order to more closely align its translation with the proto-Masoretic Hebrew.

Group of revisions to the Septuagint made in order to more closely align its translation with the proto-Masoretic Hebrew.

Lower part of col. 18 (according to E. Tov) of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXII gr). The arrow points at the divine name in paleo-Hebrew script

Ellis R. Brotzman (retired professor of Old Testament at Tyndale Theological Seminary) and Eric J. Tully (assistant professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) claim that a characteristic of the kaige translation is that it wrote YHWH in paleo-Hebrew script instead of translating it into Greek.

Cover of the second edition

Nova Vulgata

1 links

Official Classical Latin translation of the original-language texts of the Bible published by the Holy See.

Official Classical Latin translation of the original-language texts of the Bible published by the Holy See.

Cover of the second edition

When translating the Tetragrammaton, Liturgiam authenticam says that "[i]n accordance with immemorial tradition, which indeed is already evident in the above-mentioned Septuagint version, the name of almighty God expressed by the Hebrew tetragrammaton and rendered in Latin by the word Dominus, is to be rendered into any given vernacular by a word equivalent in meaning."

Ineffability

0 links

Concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words , often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term.

Concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words , often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term.

An example is the name of God in Judaism, written as YHWH but substituted with Adonai ("the Lord") or HaShem ("the name") when reading.