Tetrahedral molecular geometry

tetrahedraltetrahedral geometryinverted tetrahedral geometrytetrahedratetrahedrally coordinatedtetrahedral coordination geometrytetrahedral moleculetetrahedrallya structureasymmetric carbons
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.wikipedia
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Tetrahedron

tetrahedraltetrahedra{3,3}
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron. Methane and other perfectly symmetrical tetrahedral molecules belong to point group T d, but most tetrahedral molecules have lower symmetry.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
The bond angles are cos −1 = 109.4712206...° ≈ 109.5° when all four substituents are the same, as in methane (CH 4 ) as well as its heavier analogues.
Methane is a tetrahedral molecule with four equivalent C–H bonds.

Sulfate

sulfatessulphateSO 4
Often tetrahedral molecules feature multiple bonding to the outer ligands, as in xenon tetroxide (XeO 4 ), the perchlorate ion, the sulfate ion, the phosphate ion.
The tetrahedral molecular geometry of the sulfate ion is as predicted by VSEPR theory.

Molecular geometry

Bond anglegeometrymolecular structure
The bond angles are cos −1 = 109.4712206...° ≈ 109.5° when all four substituents are the same, as in methane (CH 4 ) as well as its heavier analogues.

Trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry

trigonal pyramidalpyramidalpyramidal geometry
However the usual classification considers only the bonded atoms and not the lone pair, so that ammonia is actually considered as pyramidal.
In chemistry, a trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron (not to be confused with the tetrahedral geometry).

Thiazyl trifluoride

Thiazyl trifluoride (SNF 3 ) is tetrahedral, featuring a sulfur-to-nitrogen triple bond.
It has tetrahedral molecular geometry around the sulfur atom, and is regarded to be a prime example of a compound that has a sulfur-nitrogen triple bond.

1.1.1-Propellane

[1.1.1]propellanePropellane[1.1.1]-propellane
The simplest examples of organic molecules displaying inverted tetrahedral geometry are the smallest propellanes, such as [[1.1.1-Propellane|[1.1.1]propellane]]; or more generally the paddlanes, and pyramidane ([3.3.3.3]fenestrane).
The bonds of the two central carbon atoms have an inverted tetrahedral geometry, and the length of the central bond is 160 pm.

Propellane

[2.1.1]Propellane[2.2.1]Propellane[4.1.1]Propellane
The simplest examples of organic molecules displaying inverted tetrahedral geometry are the smallest propellanes, such as [[1.1.1-Propellane|[1.1.1]propellane]]; or more generally the paddlanes, and pyramidane ([3.3.3.3]fenestrane).
In the propellanes with small cycles, such as [[1.1.1-Propellane|[1.1.1]propellane]] or [[2.2.2-Propellane|[2.2.2]propellane]], the two carbons at the ends of the axial bond will be highly strained, and their bonds may even assume an inverted tetrahedral geometry.

Fenestrane

pyramidane
The simplest examples of organic molecules displaying inverted tetrahedral geometry are the smallest propellanes, such as [[1.1.1-Propellane|[1.1.1]propellane]]; or more generally the paddlanes, and pyramidane ([3.3.3.3]fenestrane).
In an extreme case the central carbon atom, which would ordinarily have tetrahedral molecular geometry for its four bonds gets completely flattened.

Orbital hybridisation

hybridizationhybridizedorbital hybridization
In reality, methane has four bonds of equivalent strength separated by the tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5°.

Permanganate

MnO 4 − MnO 4 permanganate ion
The ion has tetrahedral geometry.

Tetrahedrane

tetrahedrane dimer
An organic example is tetrahedrane (C 4 H 4 ) with four carbon atoms each bonded to one hydrogen and the other three carbons.
One of the Si − –Si bonds is now 272 pm and its silicon atom has an inverted tetrahedral geometry.

Paddlane

The simplest examples of organic molecules displaying inverted tetrahedral geometry are the smallest propellanes, such as [[1.1.1-Propellane|[1.1.1]propellane]]; or more generally the paddlanes, and pyramidane ([3.3.3.3]fenestrane).

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Substituent

substitutedsubstitutionsubstituents
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Group 14 hydride

group-14 hydrideits heavier analogues
The bond angles are cos −1 = 109.4712206...° ≈ 109.5° when all four substituents are the same, as in methane (CH 4 ) as well as its heavier analogues.

Point group

point groupssymmetryRosette groups
Methane and other perfectly symmetrical tetrahedral molecules belong to point group T d, but most tetrahedral molecules have lower symmetry.

Chirality (chemistry)

chiralchiralityoptical isomer
Tetrahedral molecules can be chiral.

Xenon tetroxide

XeO 4
Often tetrahedral molecules feature multiple bonding to the outer ligands, as in xenon tetroxide (XeO 4 ), the perchlorate ion, the sulfate ion, the phosphate ion.

Perchlorate

perchloratesClO 4 ammonium perchlorate
Often tetrahedral molecules feature multiple bonding to the outer ligands, as in xenon tetroxide (XeO 4 ), the perchlorate ion, the sulfate ion, the phosphate ion.

Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphate
Often tetrahedral molecules feature multiple bonding to the outer ligands, as in xenon tetroxide (XeO 4 ), the perchlorate ion, the sulfate ion, the phosphate ion.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Other molecules have a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs around a central atom; for example ammonia (NH 3 ) with the nitrogen atom surrounded by three hydrogens and one lone pair.

Lone pair

lone electron pairlone pairsfree electron pair
Other molecules have a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs around a central atom; for example ammonia (NH 3 ) with the nitrogen atom surrounded by three hydrogens and one lone pair.

Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0)

Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 [Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium
Illustrative examples include tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (Pd[P(C 6 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 ), nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO) 4 ), and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ).