Teutonic Order

Teutonic KnightsTeutonicTeutonic KnightOrder of Teutonic KnightsKnights of the Teutonic Orderthe Order of Teutonic KnightsBlack CrossGerman OrderOrder of the Teutonic Knightscrusaders
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c.wikipedia
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Military order (religious society)

military ordermilitary ordersKnightly Order
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c.
The original military orders were the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights.

Hermann von Salza

Herman of SalzaHermann of SalzaHermann
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians.
Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – 20 March 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.

Livonian Order

Livonian branchOrder of Livoniaits branch
However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order).
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

Golden Bull of Rimini

imperial approvalTreaty of Kruschwitz
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians.
The Golden Bull of Rimini was a Golden Bull issued by Emperor Frederick II, at his court in Rimini in March 1226 to confirm the Teutonic Knights' possessions in Prussia.

Battle of Grunwald

GrunwaldBattle of Grunwald (Tannenberg)Battle of Tannenberg
In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg).
The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen.

Baltic states

BalticBaltic countriesBaltics
Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians in the Holy Land and the Baltics during the Middle Ages.
After the Brothers of the Sword suffered defeat at the Battle of Saule to Lithuanians, the remaining Brothers were integrated into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order.

Religious order (Catholic)

Catholic religious orderreligious orderRoman Catholic religious order
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c.
As such, also the Teutonic Order may qualify, as today it is mainly monastic.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order).
The pagan state was targeted in the religious crusade by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order.

Siege of Marienburg (1410)

Siege of MarienburgSiege of Malborkwithstood the siege
However, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was successfully defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse.
The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.

Knight

knighthoodknightedknights
Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order still confers limited honorary knighthoods.
The first military orders of knighthood were those of the Knights Hospitallers and of the Holy Sepulchre, both founded at the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Order of Saint Lazarus (1100), Knights Templars (1118) and the Teutonic Knights (1190).

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order).
Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans, which led to centuries of Poland's warfare with the Knights and the German Prussian state.

Battle of Lubawa

Battle of Löbau
Battle of Lubawa or Löbau was a battle fought between the Teutonic Order and Prussians in 1263 during the Great Prussian Uprising.

Burzenland

Țara BârseiBarcaságTara Barsei
After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans.
In 1211 the region was given to the Teutonic Knights by King Andrew II of Hungary in return for guarding the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans.

Duchy of Estonia (1219–1346)

Danish EstoniaDuchy of EstoniaEstonia
The Order suppressed a major Estonian rebellion in 1343–1345, and in 1346 purchased the Duchy of Estonia from Denmark.
The Duchy of Estonia (Hertugdømmet Estland Ducatus Estoniae ), also known as Danish Estonia, was a direct dominion (dominium directum) of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order and became part of the Ordensstaat.

Siege of Königsberg

Battle of KalgenbesiegeKoenigsberg
After the Teutonic Knights won a crucial victory in the Siege of Königsberg from 1262 to 1265, the war had reached a turning point.
The Siege of Königsberg was a siege laid upon Königsberg Castle, one of the main strongholds of the Teutonic Knights, by Prussians during the Great Prussian Uprising from 1262 possibly though 1265.

Battle of Pagastin

Battle of Paganstin
Battle of Pagastin was a medieval battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians in 1271 during the Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274).

Battle of Strėva

Battle of Strawenbattle of Streba RiverBattle of Streva
In 1348, the Order won a great victory over the Lithuanians in the Battle of Strėva, severely weakening them.
The Battle of Strėva, Strebe, or Strawe was fought on 2 February 1348 between the Teutonic Order and the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the banks of the Strėva River, a right tributary of the Neman River, near present-day Žiežmariai.

Iron Cross

Iron Cross 2nd ClassIron Cross First ClassIC
A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia and Germany as the Iron Cross and Pour le Mérite.
The design of the cross symbol was black with a white or silver outline, was ultimately derived from the cross pattée of the Teutonic Order, used by knights on occasions from the 13th century.

Battle of Krücken

Krücken
The Battle of Krücken was a medieval battle fought in 1249 during the Prussian Crusades between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes.

Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466)

Thirteen Years' WarThirteen Years' War (1454–66)Thirteen Years’ War
In 1454, the Prussian Confederation, consisting of the gentry and burghers of western Prussia, rose up against the Order, beginning the Thirteen Years' War.
The war began as an uprising by Prussian cities and local nobility to win independence from the Teutonic Knights.

Gollub War

After the Gollub War the Knights lost some small border regions and renounced all claims to Samogitia in the 1422 Treaty of Melno.
The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422.

Battle of Durbe

In 1260 it suffered a disastrous defeat in the Battle of Durbe against Samogitians, which inspired rebellions throughout Prussia and Livonia.
On 13 July 1260, the Samogitians soundly defeated the joint forces of the Teutonic Knights from Prussia and Livonian Order from Livonia.

Battle of Rudau

Battle of Rūdava
The Teutonic Knights won a decisive victory over Lithuania in the Battle of Rudau in 1370.
The Battle of Rudau (Schlacht bei Rudau, Rūdavos mūšis) was a medieval pitched battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on 17 or 18 February 1370 near Rudau village north of Königsberg (now Melnikovo village in the Kaliningrad oblast).

Polish–Teutonic War (1519–1521)

Polish–Teutonic WarPolish–Teutonic War (1519–21)Horsemen's War
After the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–1521), the Order was completely ousted from Prussia when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg converted to Lutheranism in 1525.
The Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (Reiterkrieg, horsemen's war, Wojna pruska, Prussian War) was fought between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, ending with an armistice in April 1521.

Saint George's Night Uprising

St. George's Night UprisingEstonian uprising in 1343St.George's Night Uprising
The Order suppressed a major Estonian rebellion in 1343–1345, and in 1346 purchased the Duchy of Estonia from Denmark.
After initial success the revolt was ended by the invasion of the Teutonic Order.