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Soybean

soysoybeanssoya
Textured or texturized vegetable protein (TVP), also known as textured soy protein (TSP), soy meat, or soya chunks is a defatted soy flour product, a by-product of extracting soybean oil.
For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes.

Meat analogue

meat substitutemeat substitutesmeat alternatives
It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender.
Some vegetarian meat analogues are based on centuries-old recipes for seitan (wheat gluten), rice, mushrooms, legumes, tempeh, yam flour or pressed-tofu, with flavoring added to make the finished product taste like chicken, beef, lamb, ham, sausage, seafood, etc. Other alternatives use modified defatted peanut flour, Yuba and textured vegetable protein (TVP); yuba and TVP are both soy-based meat analogues, the former made by layering the thin skin which forms on top of boiled soy milk, and the latter being a dry bulk commodity derived from soy and soy protein concentrate.

Food extrusion

extrusionextrudedextruder
It is extruded into various shapes (chunks, flakes, nuggets, grains, and strips) and sizes, exiting the nozzle while still hot and expanding as it does so.
These include some pasta, breads (croutons, bread sticks, and flat breads), many breakfast cereals and ready-to-eat snacks, confectionery, pre-made cookie dough, some baby foods, full-fat soy, textured vegetable protein, some beverages, and dry and semi-moist pet foods.

Soy protein

Soy protein concentratesoyprotein
TVP is usually made from high (50%) soy protein, soy flour or concentrate, but can also be made from cotton seeds, wheat, and oats.
The soy-based meat substitute textured vegetable protein has been used for more than 50 years as a way of inexpensively and safely extending ground beef up to 30% for hamburgers, without reducing its nutritional value.

Veganism

veganvegansvegan diet
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.
Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.

Chili con carne

chilichile verdechilis
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.
To make the chili vegetarian, the cook leaves out the meat or replaces it with a meat analogue, such as textured vegetable protein or tofu, or a starchy vegetable, such as potatoes.

Hamburger

hamburgersburgersburger
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.
A high-quality hamburger patty is made entirely of ground (minced) beef and seasonings; these may be described as "all-beef hamburger" or "all-beef patties" to distinguish them from inexpensive hamburgers made with cost-savers like added flour, textured vegetable protein, ammonia treated defatted beef trimmings (which the company Beef Products Inc, calls "lean finely textured beef"), advanced meat recovery, or other fillers.

Sloppy joe

Dynamiteground beef sandwich of the same nameSloppy Joes
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.
Ground turkey or textured vegetable protein may be used as a substitute for ground beef.

Soy allergy

soysoy allergiessoy-free
Soy allergy
textured vegetable protein (TVP)

List of meat substitutes

List of meat substitutes
Textured vegetable protein

Quorn

Wheat gluten (food)

wheat glutenseitanwheat protein
Wheat gluten
Textured vegetable protein

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
It is quick to cook, with a protein content comparable to certain meats.

Archer Daniels Midland

ADMArcher Daniels Midland CompanyADM Growmark
Textured vegetable protein was invented by the agricultural commodities and food processing company Archer Daniels Midland in the 1960s; the company owns the TVP name as a registered trademark.

Cotton

cotton woolcotton industrycotton fiber
TVP is usually made from high (50%) soy protein, soy flour or concentrate, but can also be made from cotton seeds, wheat, and oats.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
TVP is usually made from high (50%) soy protein, soy flour or concentrate, but can also be made from cotton seeds, wheat, and oats.

Oat

oatsaveninAvena sativa
TVP is usually made from high (50%) soy protein, soy flour or concentrate, but can also be made from cotton seeds, wheat, and oats.

Thermoplastic

thermoplasticsthermoplastic polymerplastic
The defatted thermoplastic proteins are heated to 150–200°C, which denatures them into a fibrous, insoluble, porous network that can soak up as much as three times its weight in liquids.

Celsius

°CCdegrees Celsius
The defatted thermoplastic proteins are heated to 150–200°C, which denatures them into a fibrous, insoluble, porous network that can soak up as much as three times its weight in liquids.

Denaturation (biochemistry)

denaturationdenatureddenature
The defatted thermoplastic proteins are heated to 150–200°C, which denatures them into a fibrous, insoluble, porous network that can soak up as much as three times its weight in liquids.

Ground meat

minced meatmincedground pork
As much as 50% protein when dry, TVP can be rehydrated at a 2:1 ratio, which drops the percentage of protein to an approximation of ground meat at 16%.

Hexane

n''-hexanen-hexanehexanes
Many TVP producers use hexane to separate soy fat from soy protein, and trace amounts of the solvent are left after manufacturing.

Animal testing on rodents

rodent studiesrodentsmouse model
But the few rodent studies that have been done suggest it would be almost impossible to get enough hexane from TVP to cause harm.

Taco

tacosfish tacofish tacos
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.

Burrito

burritosbean burritoBreakfast burrito
Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.