Thai language

ThaiThai:SiameseCentral ThaiThai-languageth:Thai titleOld ThaiStandard Thaitha
Thai, Central Thai, or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand, and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin.wikipedia
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Thai people

ThaiSiameseThais
Thai, Central Thai, or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand, and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin.
Thai people or the Thais, also known as Siamese, are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper) . As a part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic group native to Southeast Asia as well as southern China and Northeast India, Thais speak the Central Thai language, and is classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages.

Northern Thai language

Northern ThaiLannaTai Yuan
A recent research finds that the speakers of Northern Thai language (or Kham Mueang) have become so few, as most people in northern Thailand now invariably speak standard Thai, such that they are now using mostly central Thai words and seasoning their speech only with "kham mueang" accent.
Northern Thai, Lanna, or Kam Mueang (Northern Thai:,, Thai: คำเมือง ) is the language of the Northern Thai people of Lanna, Thailand.

Khmer language

KhmerCambodianKhmer (Cambodian)
Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon, and Old Khmer.
The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia.

Tai languages

TaiTai languageTai language family
It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family.
The Tai languages include the most widely spoken of the Tai–Kadai languages, including standard Thai or Siamese, the national language of Thailand; Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos; Myanmar's Shan language; and Zhuang, a major language in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi.

Southwestern Tai languages

SouthwesternSouthwestern Tai languageSouthwestern Tai
Spoken Thai is mutually intelligible with Lao and Isan, fellow Southwestern Tai languages, to a significantly high degree where its speakers are able to effectively communicate each speaking their respective language.
They include Siamese (Central Thai), Lao, Shan etc.

Lao language

LaoLaotianLao varieties
Spoken Thai is mutually intelligible with Lao and Isan, fellow Southwestern Tai languages, to a significantly high degree where its speakers are able to effectively communicate each speaking their respective language. Isan (Northeastern Thai), the language of the Isan region of Thailand, a collective term for the various Lao dialects spoken in Thailand that show some Central Thai influences, which is written with the Thai script. It is spoken by about 20 million people. Thais from both inside and outside the Isan region often simply call this variant "Lao" when speaking informally.
Modern Lao (language) is heavily influenced by the Thai language.

Bangkok

Bangkok, ThailandKrung ThepBMTA bus
Thonburi dialect (also called Bangkok dialect), spoken in Thonburi side of Bangkok. Have some Portuguese and Persian influences.
It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep.

Thailand

🇹🇭ThaiSiam
Thai, Central Thai, or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand, and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin.
According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai (or Thay/Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *kri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *daj A (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰaj A2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > taj A2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei).

Southern Thai language

Southern ThaiThaiSiamese language
Southern Thai (Thai Tai, Pak Tai, or Dambro), spoken by about 4.5 million (2006)
Southern Thai (Southern Thai/Thai: ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้ ), also known as Pak Thai (Southern Thai: ภาษาปักษ์ใต้) or Dambro, is a Southwestern Tai language spoken in the fourteen provinces of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states.

Dai people

DaiLueDai Lue
Lü (Lue, Yong, Dai), spoken by about 1,000,000 in northern Thailand, and 600,000 more in Sipsong Panna of China, Burma, and Laos (1981–2000).
The Dai people (Kam Mueang: ; Thai: ไท; Shan: တႆး ; Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰ, ) are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan, China), but by extension, the term can apply to groups in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar when Dai is used to mean specifically Tai Yai, Lue, Chinese Shan, Tai Dam, Tai Khao or even Tai in general.

Thai Chinese

ChineseThailandChinese descent
Thai, Central Thai, or Ayutthaya or Siamese, is the sole official and national language of Thailand, and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai of Chinese origin. Hatyai dialect, spoke by non-Peranakan Chinese origin in Hat Yai District (Peranakans speak Southern Thai language), Very high Teochew and some Southern Thai influences, Southern Thai language called Leang Ka Luang
This act required all foreign teachers to pass a Thai language test, and for principals of all schools to implement standards set by the Thai Ministry of Education.

Isan

northeastern Thailandnortheasternnortheast
Isan (Northeastern Thai), the language of the Isan region of Thailand, a collective term for the various Lao dialects spoken in Thailand that show some Central Thai influences, which is written with the Thai script. It is spoken by about 20 million people. Thais from both inside and outside the Isan region often simply call this variant "Lao" when speaking informally.
Central Thai is also spoken by almost everyone and is the language used in education but native in Nakhon Ratchasima Province only.

Royal Thai General System of Transcription

RTGSRTGS:romanization
Official standards are the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), published by the Royal Institute of Thailand, and the almost identical defined by the International Organization for Standardization.
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai words in the Latin alphabet.

Samut Prakan Province

Samut PrakanSamut PrakarnSamutpakarn
Ayutthaya dialect (Standard Thai, Outer Bangkok), native spoken in encircle area of Bangkok such as Ayutthaya, Ang Thong, Lopburi, Saraburi, Nakhon Nayok, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Sakhon and Samut Prakan Provinces, Eastern and Northern Bangkok. Although this dialect is standard form and sole use in education system, however this dialect are not public especially in metropolitan area, in media can found on Thai Royal News only.
In Thai the word samut is from Sanskrit, samudra, meaning "ocean" or "sea", and the word prakan is from Sanskrit, prākāra, meaning "fortress", "walls", or "stronghold".

Peranakan

Straits ChinesePeranakan ChineseBaba
Hatyai dialect, spoke by non-Peranakan Chinese origin in Hat Yai District (Peranakans speak Southern Thai language), Very high Teochew and some Southern Thai influences, Southern Thai language called Leang Ka Luang
Whereas in the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, the Peranakans are known to not only speak a Hokkien version of their own but also Thai and Kelantanese Malay dialect in Kelantan, and Terengganu Malay dialect in Terengganu respectively.

Thai alphabet

ThaiThai scriptpinthu
Isan (Northeastern Thai), the language of the Isan region of Thailand, a collective term for the various Lao dialects spoken in Thailand that show some Central Thai influences, which is written with the Thai script. It is spoken by about 20 million people. Thais from both inside and outside the Isan region often simply call this variant "Lao" when speaking informally.
The Thai alphabet is the abugida (alphasyllabary) used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many spoken in Thailand.

Romanization of Thai

transliteration of Thai
The ISO published an international standard for the transliteration of Thai into Roman script in September 2003 (ISO 11940).
There are many systems for the romanization of the Thai language, i.e. representing the language in Latin script.

Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture

XishuangbannaSipsongpannaSipsong Panna
Lü (Lue, Yong, Dai), spoken by about 1,000,000 in northern Thailand, and 600,000 more in Sipsong Panna of China, Burma, and Laos (1981–2000).
Sipsongpanna (cognate to the Thai สิบสองปันนา, ) is a Tai Lü compound consisting of sipsong "twelve", pan "township" and na "rice paddy".

Kris

keriscreesekris knife
The kris (ngoko Javanese: ; krama inggil Javanese: ; ngoko: keris; krama; dhuwung; krama inggil: wangkingan, lit. "to slice"; Jawi: کريس, Thai: กริช krit, Minangkabau: karih, Tagalog: kalis; Bugis and Makassarese: sele) is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron (pamor). Kris is most strongly associated with the culture of Indonesia.

Shan language

ShanShan alphabetHkamti Shan language
Shan (Thai Luang, Tai Long, Thai Yai), spoken by about 100,000 in north-west Thailand along the border with the Shan States of Burma, and by 3.2 million in Burma (2006).
Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai.

Isan language

IsanIsan dialectLao
Spoken Thai is mutually intelligible with Lao and Isan, fellow Southwestern Tai languages, to a significantly high degree where its speakers are able to effectively communicate each speaking their respective language. Isan (Northeastern Thai), the language of the Isan region of Thailand, a collective term for the various Lao dialects spoken in Thailand that show some Central Thai influences, which is written with the Thai script. It is spoken by about 20 million people. Thais from both inside and outside the Isan region often simply call this variant "Lao" when speaking informally.
** /tɕʰ/ and /r/ occur in loanwords from Central Thai.

Thaification

assimilationlanguage policySiamese nationalism
Nonetheless, it is often claimed that the language policy of the Thai government has shaped the dominant view that these languages are only regional variants or dialects of the "same" Thai language, or as "different kinds of Thai".
One example of this is the prescribed use of Central Thai language in schools.

Thai royal and noble titles

LuangKhunThai
Specialised pronouns are used for those with royal and noble titles, and for clergy.
The system is rooted in the Thai language equivalent of feudalism, sakdina.

Thai honorifics

SriThaoThai honorific
Pronouns, when used, are ranked in honorific registers, and may also make a T–V distinction in relation to kinship and social status.
Honorific phenomena in Thai include honorific registers, honorific pronominals, and honorific particles.

Six-hour clock

6-hour clock6-hours
Thailand also uses the distinctive Thai six-hour clock in addition to the 24-hour clock.
The six-hour clock is a traditional timekeeping system used in the Thai and formerly the Lao language and the Khmer language, alongside the official 24-hour clock.