Thallium

Tl 201 Tlthallium(I)Tl + thallicThallic compoundthallousTl 2 Tl 3+
Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81.wikipedia
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Post-transition metal

other metalPost-transition metalsB metals
It is a gray post-transition metal that is not found free in nature.
All proposals include gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth.

Boron group

group 1313group III
The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium).
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).

Gallium

GaGa 2 67 Ga
The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium).
It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium.

Indium

InIn 2 111 In
The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium).
Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium).
Such an electron configuration is shared with the other well-characterized members of its group, boron, gallium, indium, and thallium; it is also expected for nihonium.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
When isolated, thallium resembles tin, but discolors when exposed to air.
Simple eutectic systems, however, occur with bismuth, gallium, lead, thallium and zinc.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
However, the +1 state, which is far more prominent in thallium than the elements above it, recalls the chemistry of alkali metals, and thallium(I) ions are found geologically mostly in potassium-based ores, and (when ingested) are handled in many ways like potassium ions (K + ) by ion pumps in living cells.
His version put all the alkali metals then known (lithium to caesium), as well as copper, silver, and thallium (which show the +1 oxidation state characteristic of the alkali metals), together into a group.

William Crookes

Sir William CrookesCrookesCrookes lenses
Chemists William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production.
In 1861, Crookes discovered a previously unknown element with a bright green emission line in its spectrum and named the element thallium, from the Greek, a green shoot.

Thallium(I) sulfate

thallium sulfatesulfatethallium sulphate
Sulfuric and nitric acids dissolve thallium rapidly to make the sulfate and nitrate salts, while hydrochloric acid forms an insoluble thallium(I) chloride layer.
Thallium(I) sulfate (Tl 2 SO 4 ) or thallous sulfate is the sulfate salt of thallium in the common +1 oxidation state, as indicated by the Roman numeral I. It is often referred to as simply thallium sulfate.

Thallium(III) oxide

Tl 2 O 3
Thallium(III) oxide, Tl 2 O 3, is a black solid which decomposes above 800 °C, forming the thallium(I) oxide and oxygen.
Thallium(III) oxide, also known as thallic oxide, is a chemical compound of thallium and oxygen.

Thallium(I) chloride

TlClthalliumthallium chloride
Sulfuric and nitric acids dissolve thallium rapidly to make the sulfate and nitrate salts, while hydrochloric acid forms an insoluble thallium(I) chloride layer.
This colourless solid is an intermediate in the isolation of thallium from its ores.

Thallium halides

thallium(I) halidesthallium(III) chloridethallium(III) fluoride
For instance, thallium(III) fluoride, TlF 3, has the β-BiF 3 structure rather than that of the lighter group 13 trifluorides, and does not form the complex anion in aqueous solution.
The thallium halides include monohalides, where thallium has oxidation state +1, trihalides in which thallium generally has oxidation state +3, and some intermediate halides containing thallium with mixed +1 and +3 oxidation states.

Thallium triiodide

thallium(I) triiodide
The trichloride and tribromide disproportionate just above room temperature to give the monohalides, and thallium triiodide contains the linear triiodide anion and is actually a thallium(I) compound.
Thallium triiodide is a chemical compound of thallium and iodine with formula

Claude-Auguste Lamy

Claude Auguste LamyC.-A. Lamy
Chemists William Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production.
Claude Auguste Lamy (}; 15 June 1820 – 20 March 1878) was a French chemist who discovered the element thallium independently from William Crookes in 1862.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

Thallium(I) oxide

oxideTl 2 O
The stability of thallium(I) compounds demonstrates its differences from the rest of the group: a stable oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate are known, as are many chalcogenides.
Thallium(I) oxide is the inorganic compound of thallium and oxygen with the formula Tl 2 O in which thallium is in its +1 oxidation state.

Spectral line

emission lineabsorption linelines
The name comes from thallium's bright green spectral emission lines.
Several elements were discovered by spectroscopic means, including helium, thallium, and caesium.

Lorándite

lorandite
Thallium is found in the minerals crookesite TlCu 7 Se 4, hutchinsonite TlPbAs 5 S 9, and lorándite TlAsS 2.
Lorándite is a thallium arsenic sulfosalt with the chemical formula: TlAsS 2.

Thallium(I) carbonate

carbonatethallium carbonateThallous carbonate
The stability of thallium(I) compounds demonstrates its differences from the rest of the group: a stable oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate are known, as are many chalcogenides.
Thallium(I) carbonate is the inorganic compound with the formula (Tl 2 CO 3.

Hutchinsonite

Thallium is found in the minerals crookesite TlCu 7 Se 4, hutchinsonite TlPbAs 5 S 9, and lorándite TlAsS 2.
Hutchinsonite is a sulfosalt mineral of thallium, arsenic and lead with formula (Tl,Pb) 2 As 5 S 9.

Isotope

isotopesisotopicisotopic composition
Thallium has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210.
and thallium, have two odd-even stable isotopes each.

Nuclear medicine

nuclear imagingnuclear cardiologyradionuclide imaging
The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small, nontoxic amounts as an agent in a nuclear medicine scan, during one type of nuclear cardiac stress test.
Thallium-201,

Thallium(I) hydroxide

TlOHhydroxideThallium hydroxide
The stability of thallium(I) compounds demonstrates its differences from the rest of the group: a stable oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate are known, as are many chalcogenides.
Thallium(I) hydroxide, also called thallous hydroxide, TlOH, is a hydroxide of thallium, with thallium in oxidation state +1.

Inert pair effect

inert electron pairsinert pairinert s-pair effect
Due to the inert pair effect, the 6s electron pair is relativistically stabilised and it is more difficult to get them involved in chemical bonding than for the heavier elements.

Antimony

Sbantimonialantimonium
In addition, several other thallium minerals, containing 16% to 60% thallium, occur in nature as complexes of sulfides or selenides that primarily contain antimony, arsenic, copper, lead, and/or silver.
The abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million, comparable to thallium at 0.5 parts per million and silver at 0.07 ppm.