The Californias

Las CaliforniasLas Californias ProvinceCaliforniaCaliforniascolonialNueva CaliforniaProvincia de las CaliforniasSpanish CaliforniaCalifornia coastCalifornian
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America spanning the United States and Mexico and consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur.wikipedia
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Alta California

Mexican CaliforniaCaliforniaUpper California
Historically, the term "The Californias" was used to define the vast northwestern region of Spanish America, as the Province of the Californias (Provincia de las Californias), and later as a collective term for Alta California and the Baja California Peninsula.
Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had previously comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804.

Baja California Sur

Baja CaliforniaBahía TortugasSouth Territory of Baja California
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America spanning the United States and Mexico and consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur.
The state is the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula, located in the northwest of Mexico, part of the larger The Californias region of North America.

Baja California Peninsula

Baja CaliforniaBaja PeninsulaLower California
Historically, the term "The Californias" was used to define the vast northwestern region of Spanish America, as the Province of the Californias (Provincia de las Californias), and later as a collective term for Alta California and the Baja California Peninsula. The Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula.
The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula and lands to the north, including both Baja California and Alta California, the region that became parts of the present-day U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

Baja California

Baja California NorteBajaBaja California, Mexico
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America spanning the United States and Mexico and consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur.
Baja California encompasses a territory, within The Californias region of North America, which exhibits diverse geography for a relatively small area.

Nevada

NVState of NevadaNevada, USA
The populated coastal region of the territory was Admitted into the Union in 1850 as the State of California, while the vast, sparsely-populated interior region would only later gain statehood as Nevada, Utah, and large parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.
Nevada became a part of Alta California (Upper California) province in 1804 when the Californias were split.

Origin of the name California

CaliforniaEtymology of CaliforniaCalifas
Today, "The Californias" is a collective term to refer to the American and Mexican states bearing the name California, which share geography, history, cultures, and strong economic ties.
Collectively, these three areas constitute the region formerly referred to as The Californias.

Gaspar de Portolá

Gaspar de PortolàGaspar de PortolaPortolà
Gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition.
As commander of the Portolá expedition on land and sea that established San Diego and Monterey, Portolá expanded New Spain's Las Californias province far to the north from its beginnings on the Baja California peninsula.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
Historically, the term "The Californias" was used to define the vast northwestern region of Spanish America, as the Province of the Californias (Provincia de las Californias), and later as a collective term for Alta California and the Baja California Peninsula.
On the mainland, the administrative units included Las Californias, that is, the Baja California peninsula, still part of Mexico and divided into Baja California and Baja California Sur; Alta California (present-day Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado, and southern Wyoming); (from the 1760s) Louisiana (including the western Mississippi River basin and the Missouri River basin); Nueva Extremadura (the present-day states of Coahuila and Texas); and Santa Fe de Nuevo México (parts of Texas and New Mexico).

Portolá expedition

Portola expeditionPortolà expeditionexpedition
Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá (1769), his successor Pedro Fages (1770), Juan Bautista de Anza (1774–76), the Franciscan missionaries and others.
It was led by Gaspar de Portolá, governor of Las Californias, the Spanish colonial province that included California, Baja California, and other parts of present-day Mexico and the United States.

Eusebio Kino

Eusebio Francisco KinoFather KinoFather Eusebio Francisco Kino
The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino, in 1683.
Kino's first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
The Californias (Spanish: Las Californias), occasionally known as the Three Californias or Two Californias, are a region of North America spanning the United States and Mexico and consisting of the U.S. state of California and the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. The populated coastal region of the territory was Admitted into the Union in 1850 as the State of California, while the vast, sparsely-populated interior region would only later gain statehood as Nevada, Utah, and large parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.
It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur).

Spanish missions in Baja California

missionmissions in Baja CaliforniaBaja California
The Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula.
Gaspar de Portolà was appointed Governor of Las Californias, with orders to supervise the Jesuit expulsion and oversee the installation of replacement Franciscan priests.

Juan María de Salvatierra

Juan María SalvatierraJuan Maria SalvatierraSalvatierra
His Misión San Bruno failed, however, and it wasn't until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra.
After obtaining permission from his superiors, he sailed on 10 October 1697 for the Baja California region of Las Californias Province, to found the Spanish missions in Baja California chain.

Pedro Fages

Don Pedro FagesFagesLieutenant Don Pedro Fages
Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá (1769), his successor Pedro Fages (1770), Juan Bautista de Anza (1774–76), the Franciscan missionaries and others.
After Portolá left California in 1770, captain Pedro Fages was left in charge of the Presidio of Monterey, as the somewhat independent lieutenant-governor of California Nueva (New California) — which, in 1770, became part of Las Californias, and was later split from Baja California to become Alta California.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo1848 Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoTreaty of Guadalupe
Following Mexico's defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Unlike the New Mexico segment of the boundary, which depended partly on unknown geography, "in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California", a straight line was drawn from the mouth of the Gila to one marine league south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego, slightly north of the previous Mexican provincial boundary at Playas de Rosarito.

José Joaquín de Arrillaga

Governor José Joaquín de ArrillagaJ.J. de Arrillaga
Diego de Borica died on August 19, 1800 and Arrillaga again was appointed Governor of Las Californias until 1804.

Juan Bautista de Anza

De Anza ExpeditionAnza Expeditionde Anza
Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá (1769), his successor Pedro Fages (1770), Juan Bautista de Anza (1774–76), the Franciscan missionaries and others.
The primary legacy is the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail in California and Arizona, administered by the US National Park Service, for hiking and driving the route of his expedition exploring Las Californias In the San Fernando Valley the trail crosses the Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve, and in the San Gabriel Valley the trail is in the Puente Hills just north of Whittier, California.

José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora

José de GálvezJosé GalvezJosé de Gálvez y Gallardo
At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province.
The new political unit included the Provincias Internas of Nueva Vizcaya, Nuevo Santander, Sonora y Sinaloa, Las Californias, Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas), and Nuevo México.

Tijuana

Tijuana, MexicoTijuana, Baja CaliforniaTijuana, Baja California, Mexico
The international metropolitan region was estimated at about 5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, and the largest bi-national conurbation that is shared between US and Mexico.

San Jose, California

San JoseSan Jose, CASan José
San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias.

Spanish missions in California

California missionsmissionsSpanish missions
Mission development was therefore financed out of El Fondo Piadoso de las Californias (The Pious Fund of the Californias, which originated in 1697 and consisted of voluntary donations from individuals and religious bodies in Mexico to members of the Society of Jesus) to enable the missionaries to propagate the Catholic Faith in the area then known as California.

History of California before 1900

History of California through 1899CaliforniaCalifornia history
During the last quarter of the 18th century, the first Spanish settlements were established in what later became the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.