The Canon of Medicine

Canon of MedicineCanonQanunCollection of the Canon of Medicine (Al Qanoon fi al tibb by Ibn Sina)Kitab al-QanunMedical Lawsmedical writingsMedicineQanun fi'l-TibbThe Canon in medicine
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.wikipedia
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Avicenna

Ibn SinaIbn SīnāAbu Ali ibn Sina
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

Four temperaments

phlegmaticcholericsanguine
The Canon also adopted the ancient theory of Four Temperaments and extended it to encompass "emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awareness, movements and dreams".
Persian polymath Avicenna (980–1037 AD) extended the theory of temperaments in his Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities.

Ancient Iranian medicine

Persian physicianPersian medicinemedicine
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.
In The Canon of Medicine (c.

Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

physicianIslamic medicinemedicine
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.
He is credited for writing two books in particular: his most famous, al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), and also The Book of Healing.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine. The medical traditions of Galen and thereby Hippocrates, had dominated Islamic medicine from its beginnings.
Galen's works on anatomy and medicine became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, alongside Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine, which elaborated on Galen's works.

Humorism

humorshumoursfour humours
The Canon of Medicine is based upon the Four Humours of Hippocratic medicine, but refined in various ways.
Medieval medical tradition in the "Golden Age of Islam" adopted the theory of humorism from Greco-Roman medicine, notably via the Persian polymath Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025).

The Book of Healing

Book of HealingKitab al-ShifaAl-Shefa
Despite its title, it is not concerned with medicine; Avicenna's earlier The Canon of Medicine in 5 volumes had been medical.

Medical literature

medical journalsmedical pressmedical text
Among the most notable descriptions are texts from Egypt (Imhotep, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Ebers Papyrus, Kahun Gynecological Papyrus), Mesopotamia (Diagnostic Handbook, Alkindus, De Gradibus), India (Ayurveda, Sushruta Samhita, Charaka Samhita), China (Yellow Emperor, Huangdi Neijing), Greece (Iliad and Odyssey are the earliest sources of Greek medical practise; Hippocratic medicine), Persia (Rhazes, Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine, The Book of Healing), Spain (Abulcasis, Kitab al-Tasrif) and Syria (Ibn al-Nafis, Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, Comprehensive Book on Medicine).

William Osler

Sir William OslerOsler Housethe Osler Medical Service
William Osler described the Canon as "the most famous medical textbook ever written," noting that it remained "a medical bible for a longer time than any other work."
He noted that Avicenna's Canon of Medicine remained "a medical bible for a longer time than any other work".

Aga Khan Museum

Aga KhanAga Khan Museum collectionAgha Khan Museum
The earliest known copy of volume 5 of the Canon of Medicine (dated 1052) is held in the collection of the Aga Khan and is to be housed in the Aga Khan Museum planned for Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Manuscripts in the collection include the earliest known copy of Avicenna's Qanun fi'l-Tibb ("The Canon of Medicine") dated 1052.

Al-Tasrif

Kitab al-TasrifKitab al-TaṣrifAl-Tasrif li-man 'ajaza 'an al-ta'lif
It remained the primary source on surgery in Europe for the next 500 years, and as the historian of medicine, Arturo Castiglioni, has put it: al-Zahrawi's treatise "in surgery held the same authority as did the Canon of Avicenna in medicine".

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

Medicine in ancient Rome

RomeRomanGreco-Roman medicine
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Chinese medicineChinese traditional medicinemedicine
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.

Ayurveda

AyurvedicAyurvedic medicinePanchakarma
It presents an overview of the contemporary medical knowledge of the Islamic world, which had been influenced by earlier traditions including Greco-Roman medicine (particularly Galen), Persian medicine, Chinese medicine and Indian medicine.

Unani medicine

UnaniYunaniYunani medicine
It is still used in Yunani medicine, a form of traditional medicine practiced in India.

Hippocrates

HippocraticHippocrates of CosHippocrates of Kos
The medical traditions of Galen and thereby Hippocrates, had dominated Islamic medicine from its beginnings.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Avicenna sought to fit these traditions into Aristotle's natural philosophy.

Konye-Urgench

GurganjUrgenchKunya-Urgench
He began writing the Canon in Gorganj, continued in Rey and completed it in Hamadan in 1025.

Ray, Iran

RayReyRayy
He began writing the Canon in Gorganj, continued in Rey and completed it in Hamadan in 1025.

Four causes

final causeefficient causeformal cause
He describes what he says are the "four causes" of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause:

Aristotelianism

AristotelianAristotelian philosophyAristotelians
He describes what he says are the "four causes" of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause: