The Communist Manifesto

Communist ManifestoManifesto of the Communist PartyThe Manifesto of the Communist PartyA spectre is haunting the worldclass strugglecommunist idealsCommunist Manifesto of 1848idiocy of rural lifeKommunistischen ManifestManifesto
The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.wikipedia
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Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital.

Friedrich Engels

EngelsFrederick EngelsFrederich Engels
The Communist Manifesto, originally the Manifesto of the Communist Party (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 political document by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx and also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works.

Communist League

League of CommunistsLeague of the Just[Communist] League
Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents.
The Communist League is regarded as the first Marxist political party and it was on behalf of this group that Marx and Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto late in 1847.

Revolutions of 1848

Spring of Nations1848 Revolution1848 revolutions
Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working in Brussels, had written Manifesto of the Communist Party (published in German in London on February 21, 1848) at the request of the Communist League (an organization consisting principally of German workers).

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.
In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.

Class conflict

class struggleclass warfareclass war
It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. In capitalism, the industrial working class, or proletariat, engage in class struggle against the owners of the means of production, the bourgeoisie.
In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx argued that a class is formed when its members achieve class consciousness and solidarity.

Workers of the world, unite!

Proletarians of all countries, unite!Butun dunyo proletarlari, birlashingiz!Soviet Union state motto
It ends by declaring an alliance with the democratic socialists, boldly supporting other communist revolutions and calling for united international proletarian action—"Working Men of All Countries, Unite!".
The political slogan "Workers of the world, unite!" is one of the most famous rallying cries from The Communist Manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!", but soon popularised in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!").

Utopian socialism

utopian socialistutopian socialistsutopian
The third section, "Socialist and Communist Literature", distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines prevalent at the time—these being broadly categorised as Reactionary Socialism; Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism; and Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism.
The term "utopian socialism" was introduced by Karl Marx in "For a Ruthless Criticism of Everything" in 1843 (and then developed in The Communist Manifesto in 1848), although shortly before its publication Marx had already attacked the ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in Das Elend der Philosophie (originally written in French, 1847).

Bourgeois socialism

bourgeois socialistconservative or bourgeois socialism
The third section, "Socialist and Communist Literature", distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines prevalent at the time—these being broadly categorised as Reactionary Socialism; Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism; and Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism.
"Conservative" or "bourgeois socialism" was a term used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in various pieces, including in The Communist Manifesto.

League of the Just

In spring 1847, Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just, who were quickly convinced by the duo's ideas of "critical communism".
The resulting document was The Communist Manifesto.

Helen Macfarlane

Helen Edwards née Macfarlane
In June–November 1850 the Manifesto of the Communist Party was published in English for the first time when George Julian Harney serialised Helen Macfarlane's translation in his Chartist magazine The Red Republican.
Helen Macfarlane, born Barrhead, 25 September 1818 (registered in the Abbey [i.e. landward] Parish of Paisley), Renfrewshire, Scotland, died Nantwich, Cheshire, England 29 March 1860, was a Scottish Chartist feminist journalist and philosopher, known for her 1850 translation into English of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which was published in German in 1848.

Principles of Communism

two question-and-answer "catechism" documents
This became the draft Principles of Communism, described as "less of a credo and more of an exam paper".
Principles of Communism served as the draft version for the Communist Manifesto.

Bourgeoisie

bourgeoisburgherburghers
In capitalism, the industrial working class, or proletariat, engage in class struggle against the owners of the means of production, the bourgeoisie.
Further sense denotations of "bourgeois" describe ideological concepts such as "bourgeois freedom", which is thought to be opposed to substantive forms of freedom; "bourgeois independence"; "bourgeois personal individuality"; the "bourgeois family"; et cetera, all derived from owning capital and property (see The Communist Manifesto, 1848).

Working class

working-classlower classworkers
In capitalism, the industrial working class, or proletariat, engage in class struggle against the owners of the means of production, the bourgeoisie.

Historical materialism

materialist conception of historyhistorical materialistMarx's theory of history
The first section of the Manifesto, "Bourgeois and Proletarians", elucidates the materialist conception of history, that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".
In The Communist Manifesto.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin
Following the October Revolution of 1917 that swept the Vladimir Lenin-led Bolsheviks to power in Russia, the world's first socialist state was founded explicitly along Marxist lines.
There, Lenin fully embraced Marxism and produced a Russian language translation of Marx and Friedrich Engels's 1848 political pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto.

Das Kapital

CapitalCapital: Critique of Political EconomyKapital
Further, the mass-based social-democratic parties of the Second International did not require their rank and file to be well-versed in theory; Marxist works such as the Manifesto or Das Kapital were read primarily by party theoreticians.

Social democracy

social democraticsocial-democraticsocial democrat
Over the next forty years, as social-democratic parties rose across Europe and parts of the world, so did the publication of the Manifesto alongside them, in hundreds of editions in thirty languages.
However, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form which was unlike Marx and Engels' The Communist Manifesto.

Marx/Engels Collected Works

Marx-Engels Collected WorksCollected WorksCollected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
These publications were either shorter writings or they were compendia such as the various editions of Marx and Engels' Selected Works, or their Collected Works.
The Collected Works also contain several major, well-known works by Marx and Engels, such as The Communist Manifesto (V.

Free trade

trade liberalizationfree-tradetrade liberalisation
Working only intermittently on the Manifesto, he spent much of his time delivering lectures on political economy at the German Workers' Education Association, writing articles for the Deutsche-Brüsseler-Zeitung, and giving a long speech on free trade.
For example, Karl Marx wrote in The Communist Manifesto (1848): "The bourgeoisie [...] has set up that single, unconscionable freedom – free trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation".

George Julian Harney

George HarneyJulian Harney
In June–November 1850 the Manifesto of the Communist Party was published in English for the first time when George Julian Harney serialised Helen Macfarlane's translation in his Chartist magazine The Red Republican.
In 1850 the Red Republican published the first English translation of The Communist Manifesto The translation was done by Helen Macfarlane, a journalist, socialist and feminist of the time, who wrote for the Red Republican under the pseudonym Howard Morton.

Soho

Soho, LondonBroad Street pumpSoho district
On the 28th, Marx and Engels met at Ostend in Belgium, and a few days later, gathered at the Soho, London headquarters of the German Workers' Education Association to attend the Congress.
The principles of The Communist Manifesto were laid out by Karl Marx in 1850 at a meeting in the Red Lion pub.

Catechism

catecheticalcatechistcatechisms
On 23 November, just before the Communist League's Second Congress (29 November – 8 December 1847), Engels wrote to Marx, expressing his desire to eschew the catechism format in favour of the manifesto, because he felt it "must contain some history."
Friedrich Engels' 1847 work Principles of Communism was written as a catechism: Engels subsequently decided that the format was not suited to the addition of historical material which he felt was necessary, and he and Karl Marx restructured the material and used it as the nucleus of The Communist Manifesto.

Communist Party USA

Communist PartyCommunistAmerican Communist Party
Firstly, in terms of circulation; in 1932 the American and British Communist Parties printed several hundred thousand copies of a cheap edition for "probably the largest mass edition ever issued in English".
Reiterating the idea of property rights in socialist society as it is outlined in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's Communist Manifesto (1848), the Communist Party emphasizes:

Eduard Bernstein

Edward BernsteinBernsteinBernsteinism
In contrast, critics such as revisionist Marxist and reformist socialist Eduard Bernstein distinguished between "immature" early Marxism—as exemplified by The Communist Manifesto written by Marx and Engels in their youth—that he opposed for its violent Blanquist tendencies and later "mature" Marxism that he supported.
The former, exemplified by Marx and Engels's 1848 The Communist Manifesto, he opposed for what he regarded as its violent Blanquist tendencies, embracing the latter, holding that socialism could be achieved by peaceful means through incremental legislative reform in democratic societies.