The Division of Labour in Society

The Division of Labor in SocietyDivision of LaborDivision of Labour in SocietyDe la division du travail social
The Division of Labour in Society (De la division du travail social) is the doctoral dissertation of the French sociologist Émile Durkheim, published in 1893.wikipedia
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Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
The Division of Labour in Society (De la division du travail social) is the doctoral dissertation of the French sociologist Émile Durkheim, published in 1893.
His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society (1893).

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
It was influential in advancing sociological theories and thought, with ideas which in turn were influenced by Auguste Comte.
Durkheim's Division of Labour in Society is to a large extent an extended debate with Spencer from whose sociology, many commentators now agree, Durkheim borrowed extensively.

Collective consciousness

hive mindgroup mindcollective conscience
Durkheim suggested that in a "primitive" society, mechanical solidarity, with people acting and thinking alike and with a shared collective conscience, is what allows social order to be maintained.
The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his The Division of Labour in Society in 1893.

Solidarity

social solidaritySolidarity movementtogetherness
Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies based on two very different forms of solidarity – mechanical and organic – and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies.
Durkheim introduced the terms mechanical and organic solidarity as part of his theory of the development of societies in The Division of Labour in Society (1893).

Mechanical and organic solidarity

organic solidaritymechanical solidarityorganic society
Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies based on two very different forms of solidarity – mechanical and organic – and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies.
Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in The Division of Labour in Society (1893).

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
In an advanced, industrial, capitalist society, the complex system of division of labour means that people are allocated in society according to merit and rewarded accordingly: social inequality reflects natural inequality, at least in the case that there is complete equity in the society.
In his seminal work, The Division of Labor in Society, Émile Durkheim observes that the division of labour appears in all societies and positively correlates with societal advancement because it increases as a society progresses.

Auguste Comte

ComteComteanAuguste Compte
It was influential in advancing sociological theories and thought, with ideas which in turn were influenced by Auguste Comte.

Social order

ordersocial ordersmaintaining order
Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies based on two very different forms of solidarity – mechanical and organic – and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies. Durkheim argued that moral regulation was needed, as well as economic regulation, to maintain order (or organic solidarity) in society.

Industrial society

industrialindustrial societiesindustrial labor
Durkheim described how social order was maintained in societies based on two very different forms of solidarity – mechanical and organic – and the transition from more "primitive" societies to advanced industrial societies.

Crime

criminalcriminalscriminal offence
In such a society, Durkheim viewed crime as an act that "offends strong and defined states of the collective conscience" though he viewed crime as a normal social fact.

Penal

Penal (town)
Because social ties are relatively homogeneous and weak throughout a mechanical society, the law has to be repressive and penal to respond to offences of the common conscience.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
In an advanced, industrial, capitalist society, the complex system of division of labour means that people are allocated in society according to merit and rewarded accordingly: social inequality reflects natural inequality, at least in the case that there is complete equity in the society.

Morality

moralmoralsmoral code
Durkheim argued that moral regulation was needed, as well as economic regulation, to maintain order (or organic solidarity) in society.

Regulatory economics

economic regulationregulationeconomics of regulation
Durkheim argued that moral regulation was needed, as well as economic regulation, to maintain order (or organic solidarity) in society.

Civil disorder

civil unrestsocial unrestcivil disturbance
He thought that transition of a society from "primitive" to advanced may bring about major disorder, crisis, and anomie.

Crisis

crisespolitical crisispersonal crises
He thought that transition of a society from "primitive" to advanced may bring about major disorder, crisis, and anomie.

Anomie

anarchyanomicNormlessness
He thought that transition of a society from "primitive" to advanced may bring about major disorder, crisis, and anomie.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Unlike Karl Marx, Durkheim did not foresee any different society arising out of the industrial capitalist division of labour.

Class conflict

class struggleclass warfareclass war
He regarded conflict, chaos, and disorder as pathological phenomena to modern society, whereas Marx highlights class conflict.

Development theory

developedSociology of developmentdevelopment
His work ‘The Division of Labor in Society’ was very influential.

Free Press (publisher)

Free PressThe Free Press
It was launched with three classic titles: Division of Labor by Emile Durkheim, The Theory of Economic and Social Organization by Max Weber and The Scientific Outlook by Bertrand Russell.

History of modernisation theory

His most famous work is The Division of Labour in Society, which described mechanisms for the maintenance of social order and the ways in which primitive societies might make the transition to becoming more economically advanced industrial societies.

Economic sociology

economic sociologistSociety for the Advancement of Socio-Economicsstudy of markets
Émile Durkheim's The Division of Labour in Society was published in 1922, whilst Max Weber's Economy and Society was released in the same year.

History of sociology

early sociologysocial sciencesclassical
Durkheim’s Division of Labour in Society is to a large extent an extended debate with Spencer from whose sociology Durkheim borrowed extensively.

Sociology of law

Sociological jurisprudencelegal sociologylaw and society
Émile Durkheim wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.