The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi HolocaustShoaJewish Holocaustthe ShoahNazi genocidedouble genocideextermination of the Jewsgenocide of the Jews
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews.wikipedia
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World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews.
It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

History of the Jews in Europe

European JewsEuropean JewryEuropean Jewish
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews.
Around 6 million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust, which was followed by the emigration of much of the surviving population.

Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocides
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews.
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933.
He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Jews

JewishJewJewish people
Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.
Due to many factors, including the impact of the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, and widespread emigration from other Jewish communities around the world, ancient and distinct Jewish languages of several communities, including Judæo-Georgian, Judæo-Arabic, Judæo-Berber, Krymchak, Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have largely fallen out of use.

Gas chamber

gas chambersgassedlethal gas
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.
During the Holocaust, large-scale gas chambers designed for mass killing were used by Nazi Germany as part of their genocide program.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.
This genocide is known as the Holocaust.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland. The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland in 1941–1942: Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Majdanek, Chełmno, and the three Operation Reinhard camps: Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka.
It operated from December 8 1941 – April 11 1943, parallel to Operation Reinhard during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, and again from June 23 1944 – January 18 1945 during the Soviet counter-offensive.

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trainHolocaust transportsfreight trains
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were worked to death or gassed.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the [[Deutsche Reichsbahn#1939-1945: The Reichsbahn in the Second World War and the Holocaust|Deutsche Reichsbahn]] national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.

Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination camp
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland. The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland in 1941–1942: Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Majdanek, Chełmno, and the three Operation Reinhard camps: Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka.
Also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager (KL) Lublin, Majdanek remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany's allies.
The SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other victims during the Holocaust.

Operation Barbarossa

German invasion of the Soviet Unioninvasion of the Soviet UnionGerman invasion
As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized.
Mass shootings and gassing operations, carried out by the Nazis or willing collaborators, murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust.

Yom HaShoah

Holocaust Remembrance DayHolocaust Memorial DayYom Ha'Shoah
The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews; Yom HaShoah is Israel's Holocaust Remembrance Day.
Yom Hazikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah, known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, and for the Jewish resistance in that period.

Holocaust (miniseries)

Holocaust1978 miniseries ''HolocaustAmerican mini-series with that name
The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust (1978), about a fictional family of German Jews, and in November that year the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established.
Holocaust is a 1978 American four part television miniseries which recounts the trajectory of the Holocaust from the perspectives of the fictional Weiss family of German Jews and that of a rising member of the SS, who gradually becomes a merciless war criminal.

Kristallnacht

ReichskristallnachtNovember PogromNight of Broken Glass
On 9–10 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known as Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass").
Historians view Kristallnacht as a prelude to the Final Solution and the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust.

Names of the Holocaust

ChurbanChurban Europaholocaust
The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews; Yom HaShoah is Israel's Holocaust Remembrance Day. As non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims, many Jews chose to use the term Shoah or the Yiddish term Churban.
"The Holocaust" is the name commonly applied in English since the mid-1940s to the systematic extermination of 6 million Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II.

End of World War II in Europe

1945end of the war in Europeend of the war
The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945.
Liberation of Nazi concentration camps and refugees: Allied forces began to discover the scale of the Holocaust.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

U.S. Holocaust Memorial MuseumUnited States Holocaust MuseumUnited States Holocaust Memorial Council
The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust (1978), about a fictional family of German Jews, and in November that year the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.

Nazi concentration camps

Nazi concentration campconcentration campconcentration camps
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.
Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps (described in this article) and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942.
This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

Einsatzgruppen

EinsatzgruppeEinsatzgruppe AEinsatzgruppe B
Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945.
Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen, related agencies and foreign auxiliary personnel killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million of the 5.5 to 6 million Jews murdered during the Holocaust.

Yiddish

Yiddish languageYiddish-languageJudæo-German
As non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims, many Jews chose to use the term Shoah or the Yiddish term Churban.
Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide.

Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland in 1941–1942: Auschwitz II-Birkenau, Majdanek, Chełmno, and the three Operation Reinhard camps: Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka.
This deadliest phase of the Holocaust was marked by the introduction of extermination camps.

History of the Jews in Germany

German JewishGerman JewsGerman-Jewish
The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust (1978), about a fictional family of German Jews, and in November that year the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established.
A total of about six million European Jews were murdered under the direction of the Nazis, in the genocide that later came to be known as the Holocaust.

Nuremberg trials

NurembergInternational Military TribunalNuremberg Trial
Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at Nuremberg, after the war, with crimes against humanity.
The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes.