The Holocaust in Poland

the Holocaust in occupied Polandthe HolocaustHolocaust in PolandHolocaustHolocaust in Nazi-occupied PolandPolandthe ensuing Holocaustannihilated by the NazisHolocaust in occupied Polandagainst the Jewish population
The Holocaust in Poland was part of the European-wide Holocaust and took place within the September 1, 1939, boundaries of Poland, which ceased to exist as a territorial entity after the German and Soviet invasion of Poland.wikipedia
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Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

GhettoJewish ghettoghettoised Jews
In the first year and a half, the Nazis confined themselves to stripping the Jews of their valuables and property for profit, herding them into makeshift ghettos, and forcing them into slave labor for public works and the war economy.
The liquidation of the Jewish ghettos across occupied Poland was closely connected with the construction of secretive death camps—industrial-scale mass-extermination facilities—built in early 1942 for the sole purpose of murder.

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied Poland
A small percentage of Polish Jews survived World War II within German-occupied Poland or in the Soviet Union. Some Jews received organized help from Żegota (The Council to Aid Jews), an underground organization of Polish resistance in German-occupied Poland.
The Nazi plans also called for Poland's 3.3 million Jews to be exterminated; the non-Jewish majority's extermination was planned for the long term and initiated through the mass murder of its political, religious, and intellectual elites at first, which was meant to make the formation of any organized top-down resistance more difficult.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
The extermination camps played a central role in Germany's systematic murder of over 90% of Poland's Jewish population, and of Jews whom Germany transported to their deaths from western and southern Europe.
This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

Warsaw Ghetto

WarsawGhettothe Ghetto
In Warsaw, up to 80 percent of food consumed in the Ghetto was brought in illegally.
In January 1942, the gate was removed and a wooden footbridge was built over it, which became one of the postwar symbols of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
The industrial killing by exhaust fumes was already tried and tested over several weeks at the Chełmno extermination camp in the then-Wartheland, under the guise of resettlement.
Chełmno was a place of early experimentation in the development of Nazi extermination programme, continued in subsequent phases of the Holocaust throughout occupied Poland.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish JewsPolish-JewishJewish
The genocide took the lives of three million Polish Jews, half of all Jews killed during the Holocaust.
The soldiers and non-commissioned officers who were released ultimately found themselves in the Nazi ghettos and labor camps and suffered the same fate as other Jewish civilians in the ensuing Holocaust in Poland.

Reserve Police Battalion 101

Reserve Battalion 101Battalion 101Battalion 101 from Hamburg
The Ukrainian Trawniki men formed into units took an active role in the extermination of Jews at Belzec, Sobibór, Treblinka II; during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (on three occasions, see Stroop Report), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lwów, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek, Auschwitz, the Trawniki concentration camp itself, and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek camp complex including Poniatowa, Budzyń, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, and also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by members of the SS, SD, Kripo, as well as the reserve police battalions from Orpo (each, responsible for annihilation of thousands of Jews).
Following the personnel change and retraining from May 1941 until June 1942, it became a major perpetrator of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

Bronna Góra

Hvedkovichi
At Bronna Góra (the Bronna Mount, now Belarus) 50,000 Jews died in execution pits; delivered by the Holocaust trains from the ghettos in Brześć, Bereza, Janów Poleski, Kobryń, Horodec (pl), Antopol and other locations along the western border of Reichskommissariat Ostland.
It is estimated that from May 1942 until November of that year, during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in Poland, some 50,000 Jews were murdered at Bronna Góra forest in death pits.

Lublin Ghetto

Lublinghetto in Lublinformation of the Ghetto
The Ukrainian Trawniki men formed into units took an active role in the extermination of Jews at Belzec, Sobibór, Treblinka II; during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (on three occasions, see Stroop Report), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lwów, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek, Auschwitz, the Trawniki concentration camp itself, and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek camp complex including Poniatowa, Budzyń, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, and also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by members of the SS, SD, Kripo, as well as the reserve police battalions from Orpo (each, responsible for annihilation of thousands of Jews).
Set up in March 1941, the Lublin Ghetto was one of the first Nazi-era ghettos slated for liquidation during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews

Museum of the History of Polish JewsMuseum of the History of the Polish JewsPOLIN Museum
The database of the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews provides information on 1,926 Jewish communities across the country.
On June 17, 2009 the museum launched the Virtual Shtetl portal, which collects and provides access to essential information about Jewish life in Poland before and after the Holocaust in Poland.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
The Holocaust in Poland was part of the European-wide Holocaust and took place within the September 1, 1939, boundaries of Poland, which ceased to exist as a territorial entity after the German and Soviet invasion of Poland.

Sosnowiec Ghetto

SosnowiecSosnowiec (Sosnowitz) GhettoŚrodula ghetto
Auschwitz received a total of about 300,000 Jews from occupied Poland, shipped aboard freight trains from liquidated ghettos and transit camps, beginning with Bytom (February 15, 1942), Olkusz (three days of June), Otwock (in August), Łomża and Ciechanów (November), then Kraków (March 13, 1943), Sosnowiec, Będzin, Dąbrowa (June–August 1943), and several dozen other metropolitan cities and towns, including the last ghetto left standing in occupied Poland, liquidated in August 1944 at Łódź.
During the Holocaust in occupied Poland, most inmates, estimated at over 35,000 Jewish men, women and children were deported to Auschwitz death camp aboard Holocaust trains following roundups lasting from June until August 1943.

Biała Podlaska

Biala PodlaskaBialaBela
A survivor of the Treblinka uprising testified about one such train, from Biała Podlaska.
After the launch of Operation Reinhard – the code name for a most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland – on 6 June 1942, the Jews were told to prepare for "resettlement".

Chełmno trials

Chelmno Guard TrialsChełmno Guard Trialstrial of Chełmno personnel
All victims were killed with the use of mobile gas vans (Sonderwagen), which had exhaust pipes reconfigured and poisons added to gasoline (see Chełmno Trials for supplementary data).
All three were members of the SS Special Detachment Kulmhof responsible for the extermination of Jews and non-Jews, during the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

Mińsk Mazowiecki Ghetto

Mińsk GhettoMińsk MazowieckiMińsk Mazowiecki (Novominsk) Ghetto
Similar resistance was offered in Łuck, Mińsk Mazowiecki, Pińsk, Poniatowa, and in Wilno.
Two years later, beginning 21 August 1942 during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland, they were rounded up – men, women and children – and deported to Treblinka extermination camp aboard Holocaust trains.

Żegota

ZegotaCouncil for Aid to JewsCouncil to Aid the Jews
Some Jews received organized help from Żegota (The Council to Aid Jews), an underground organization of Polish resistance in German-occupied Poland.
Richard C. Lukas estimated that 60,000, or about half of the Jews who survived the Holocaust in occupied Poland (such estimates vary), were aided in some shape or form by Żegota.

Polish Righteous Among the Nations

Righteous among the NationsPolish Righteous6,532 men and women (more than from any other country in the world) have been recognized as rescuers
Over 700 Polish Righteous among the Nations received that recognition posthumously, having been murdered by the Germans for aiding or sheltering their Jewish neighbors.
Soon after the German–Soviet war had broken out in 1941, the Germans began their extermination of Polish Jews on either side of the Curzon Line, parallel to the ethnic cleansing of the Polish population including Romani and other minorities of Poland.

Hunt for the Jews

Hunt for the Jews: Betrayal and Murder in German-Occupied PolandJudenjagd
Historian Jan Grabowski in his Hunt for the Jews (2013) estimated that in the countryside, where some Polish peasants participated in German-organized Judenjagd searches for Jews, approximately 80% of the Jews who attempted to hide from the Germans ended up killed or turned in.
Hunt for the Jews: Betrayal and Murder in German-Occupied Poland is a 2013 book about the Holocaust in Poland by Jan Grabowski.

Jan Grabowski (historian)

Jan Grabowski
Historian Jan Grabowski in his Hunt for the Jews (2013) estimated that in the countryside, where some Polish peasants participated in German-organized Judenjagd searches for Jews, approximately 80% of the Jews who attempted to hide from the Germans ended up killed or turned in.
Jan Grabowski (born 1962) is a Polish-Canadian professor of history at the University of Ottawa, specializing in Jewish–Polish relations in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and in the Holocaust in Poland.

"Polish death camp" controversy

Polish death camps"Polish death camp"Polish death camps
There were no Polish guards at any of the Reinhard camps, despite the sometimes used misnomer Polish death camps.
Israeli officials and Jewish organizations criticized the legislation as an attempt to restrict discussion of anti-semitism in Poland and of the culpability of some Poles in the Holocaust.

Dehomag

an IBM subsidiaryDeutsche Hollerith Maschinen GesellschaftDeutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH
Millions of people were transported in similar trainsets to the extermination camps under the direction of the German Ministry of Transport, and tracked by an IBM subsidiary, until the official date of closing of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex in December 1944.
IBM New York established a special subsidiary in General Government, Watson Business Machines, to deal with railway traffic there during the Holocaust in Poland.

Lublin

Lublin, PolandLubelskieDistrikt Lublin
The Sobibór extermination camp, disguised as a railway transit camp not far from Lublin, began mass gassing operations in May 1942.
Almost all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust in Poland.

Grossaktion Warsaw

Großaktion WarschauGrossaktion Warschauliquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto
The shipping of Jews from the Polish capital – plan known as the Großaktion Warschau – began immediately.
Led by the SS-leader Brigadeführer Odilo Globocnik, the campaign codenamed Operation Reinhard became the critical part of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

Szymon Datner

Datner, Szymon
Holocaust survivor and historian Szymon Datner wrote that the number of Poles who murdered Jews from material greed or racial hatred was smaller than the number of Poles who sheltered and aided Jews; but that the first group was more efficient and successful in its actions.
Szymon Datner (Kraków, 2 February 1902 – 8 December 1989, Warsaw) was a Polish historian, best known for his studies of Nazi war crimes against the Jewish population of the Białystok area (Bezirk Bialystok) after the German attack, across Poland, upon the Soviet Union in June 1941.

Parczew

Parczew LandParczew, PolandPartzever
The Ukrainian Trawniki men formed into units took an active role in the extermination of Jews at Belzec, Sobibór, Treblinka II; during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (on three occasions, see Stroop Report), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lwów, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek, Auschwitz, the Trawniki concentration camp itself, and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek camp complex including Poniatowa, Budzyń, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, and also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by members of the SS, SD, Kripo, as well as the reserve police battalions from Orpo (each, responsible for annihilation of thousands of Jews).
In the course of the Holocaust, on August 19, 1942 the Nazi German Reserve Police Battalion 101 aided by the Trawniki men rounded up and deported 3,000 Jews to Treblinka extermination camp; 2,000 more Jews were loaded onto Holocaust trains and sent to their deaths several days later.