The Hump

Hump airliftHumpHump Routethe "Humpair route for the resupply of Chinaallied air shipments over "the humpChina Humpduring World War IIFlying the HumpHimalayan hump
The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China.wikipedia
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Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China.
The United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road.

India-China Division, Air Transport Command

India-China WingIndia-China DivisionIndia-China Division (ATC)
Originally referred to as the "India–China Ferry", the successive organizations responsible for carrying out the airlift were the Assam–Burma–China Command (April–July 1942) and the India-China Ferry Command (July–December 1942) of the Tenth Air Force; and the Air Transport Command's India-China Wing (December 1942 – June 1944) and India-China Division (July 1944 – November 1945).
The organization was formed as the India-China Wing, ATC (ICWATC) from a consolidation of equipment and personnel of former units of the disbanded India-China Ferry Command in December 1942, which had been established in July 1942 by the Tenth Air Force to transport materiel to China over the Himalaya Mountains ("The Hump").

Airlift

strategic airlifttactical airliftstrategic airlifter
Creating an airlift presented the AAF a considerable challenge in 1942: it had no units trained or equipped for moving cargo, and no airfields existed in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) for basing the large number of transports that would be needed.
The USAAF's Air Transport Command began the largest and longest-sustained airlift of the war in May 1942, delivering more than half a million net tons of materiel from India to China over the Hump by November 1945.

Douglas C-47 Skytrain

C-47Douglas DakotaDakota
Chiang's foreign minister, T. V. Soong, estimated that 12,000 tons of materiel could be delivered monthly by air from India if 100 C-47 Skytrain-type transports were committed to an airlift.
Possibly its most influential role in military aviation, however, was flying "The Hump" from India into China.

Air Transport Command

Ferrying CommandAir Corps Ferrying CommandU.S. Air Transport Command
The task was initially given to the AAF's Tenth Air Force, and then to its Air Transport Command (ATC).
In the same year, Smith proposed that ATC assume responsibility for the Hump airlift operation, as he believed that ATC would do a better job of transporting cargo to China.

Joseph Stilwell

StilwellJoseph W. StilwellGeneral Stilwell
The command structure of the India-China Ferry was fractured after senior officers in both India and Burma made competing claims for jurisdiction, with part of the authority given to Gen. Joseph Stilwell as CBI theater commander and part remaining with Tenth Air Force, which had also been ordered by Marshall to "co-operate when requested" with the British in defending India.
The dilemma forced Chennault and Stilwell into competition for the valuable Lend-Lease supplies arriving over the Himalayas from British-controlled India — an obstacle referred to as "The Hump".

Burma Road

road
The operation began in April 1942, after the Japanese blocked the Burma Road, and continued daily to August 1945, when the effort began to scale down.
United States Army Air Force cargo planes, mainly Curtiss C-46s, flew these supplies from airfields in Assam, India, over "the hump", the eastern end of the Himalayas.

Tenth Air Force

10th Air ForceTenth10 AF
The task was initially given to the AAF's Tenth Air Force, and then to its Air Transport Command (ATC).
It was responsible for creating, operating and safeguarding the India-China Ferry, more commonly known as the Hump airlift, between 8 April and 1 December 1942, first with its Assam-Burma-China Command until 16 July, then the India-China Ferry Command until 1 December, when jurisdiction for the airlift passed to the Air Transport Command.

23d Fighter Group

23rd Fighter Group23d Operations Group23rd Operations Group
Scott was left in command for several days before he too was ordered to China to command the first U.S. fighter group in the CATF. The 51st Fighter Group was nominally responsible for fighter protection, but two of its three squadrons had been stripped of their aircraft and personnel in July to equip the group's third squadron and round out the newly activated 23rd Fighter Group, both in China with the CATF.
By 15 June 1942, under orders from Tenth Air Force, an advance cadre of pilots and aircraft had proceeded over the Hump to Kunming, China, for combat familiarization.

Fourteenth Air Force

14th Air Force14 AFChinese-American Composite Wing
On 17 June 1942, Haynes continued on to China to take up an assignment as bomber commander of the China Air Task Force, Tenth Air Force's eastern appendage commanded by Brig.
Its mission was to defend the aerial supply operation over the Himalayan mountains between India and China – nicknamed the Hump – and to provide air support for Chinese ground forces.

Curtiss C-46 Commando

C-46Curtiss C-46C-46 Commando
The first of thirty Curtiss C-46 Commandos (an unproven cargo transport whose performance was significantly superior to the C-47's in cargo capacity and ceiling) arrived in India on 21 April 1943.
Most famous for its operations in the China-Burma-India theater (CBI) and the Far East, the Commando was a workhorse in flying over "The Hump" (as the Himalaya Mountains were nicknamed by Allied airmen), transporting desperately needed supplies to troops in China from bases in India.

China National Aviation Corporation

CNACChina National Airways CorporationNational Aviation Corporation (CNAC)
It procured most of its officers, men, and equipment from the AAF, augmented by British, British-Indian Army, Commonwealth forces, Burmese labor gangs and an air transport section of the Chinese National Aviation Corporation (CNAC).
During World War II, CNAC was headquartered in India, and flew supplies from Assam, India, into Yunnan, southwestern China through the Hump Route over the Himalayas, after the Japanese blocked the Burma Road.

51st Operations Group

51st Fighter Group51st Fighter-Interceptor Group51st Pursuit Group
The 51st Fighter Group was nominally responsible for fighter protection, but two of its three squadrons had been stripped of their aircraft and personnel in July to equip the group's third squadron and round out the newly activated 23rd Fighter Group, both in China with the CATF.
The group defended the Indian terminus of the "Hump" airlift route over the Himalaya Mountains between India and China and airfields in that area.

Chabua Air Force Station

Chabua AFSChabuaChabua Airfield
Although three bases constructed by the British on tea plantations at Chabua, Mohanbari, and Sookerating were declared operational in August 1942, and construction of a fourth began at Jorhat, none were expected to be ready for all-weather operations before November or December because of problems with unskilled indigenous labor and the failure of promised heavy equipment to arrive from the United States.
This was known as "Flying the Hump".

Lewis H. Brereton

Lewis BreretonGen. BreteronGeneral Lewis Brereton
When the newly created Tenth Air Force opened its headquarters in New Delhi under the command of Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton in March 1942, it was assigned the responsibility of developing an "India-China Ferry" using both U.S. and Chinese aircraft.
In addition to setting up the new air force, Brereton was also ordered to prepare an air route for the resupply of China.

William H. Tunner

General TunnerLieutenant General William H. Tunner
Gen. William H. Tunner, Col. Andrew B. Cannon was assigned to command the Assam Wing when it was activated the next month.
Tunner was known for his expertise in the command of large-scale military airlift operations, first in Air Transport Command (ATC) during World War II, commanding The Hump operation, and later in Military Air Transport Service (MATS) during the Berlin Airlift in 1949-1951.

Claire Lee Chennault

Claire ChennaultChennaultClaire L. Chennault
Gen. Claire L. Chennault.
In November 1943 the Japanese Army air forces were ready to challenge Allied forces again, and they began night and day raids on Calcutta and the Hump bases while their fighters contested Allied air intrusions over Burma.

308th Armament Systems Group

308th Bombardment Group308th Reconnaissance Group308
The 308th Bombardment Group reached its base at Kunming on 31 March 1943 and began two months of "reverse Hump" operations, flying round trips to India to acquire the gasoline, bombs, parts and other materiel it needed to stockpile before flying combat missions.
Once established in India, group aircraft made many trips over the Himalayan Mountains (The Hump) to Southeastern China from the Assam Valley of India airlifting obtain gasoline, oil, bombs, spare parts, and other items the group needed to prepare for and then to sustain its combat operations.

Caleb V. Haynes

Caleb Vance Haynes
On 23 April 1942, Colonel Caleb V. Haynes, a prospective bombardment group commander, was assigned to command the Assam-Kunming branch of the India-China Ferry, dubbed the Assam-Burma-China Ferry Command.
On April 9, Colonel William D. Old piloted the first flight over the Hump; Haynes the second.

Dinjan

Flying from the Royal Air Force airfield at Dinjan, Lt. Col. William D. Old used a pair of the former Pan Am DC-3s to ferry 8000 USgal of aviation fuel intended to resupply the Doolittle Raiders.
Dinjan became prominent during World War II when it had an airfield there from which C-47 of the CNAC flew over The Hump into Kunming in China carrying much needed supplies for the forces of Gen Chiang Kai-shek for the war against Japan.

Burma Campaign 1942–43

Burma Campaign19421st Burma Campaign
The collapse of Allied resistance in northern Burma in May 1942 meant further diversion of the already minuscule air effort.
The route, and the airlift itself, acquired the nickname of The Hump.

China Burma India Theater

China-Burma-India TheaterCBIChina Burma India Theatre
Creating an airlift presented the AAF a considerable challenge in 1942: it had no units trained or equipped for moving cargo, and no airfields existed in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) for basing the large number of transports that would be needed.
Well-known Allied units in the CBI included the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the 1st Air Commando Group, the engineers who built Ledo Road, the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), popularly known as "Merrill's Marauders", and the 5332d Brigade, Provisional or 'Mars Task Force', which assumed the Marauders' mission.

United States Army Air Forces

USAAFArmy Air ForcesU.S. Army Air Forces
The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China.
The Hump

Operation Matterhorn

American strategic bombing of Japan from Chinese bases began in 1944flying from airfields in ChinaMatterhorn
From April 1944 to January 1945, the India-China Division was also tasked with supporting Operation Matterhorn, the B-29 Superfortress strategic bombing campaign against Japan from forward bases around Chengtu in central China.
In September, Combined Chiefs of Staff planners concluded that B-29s in China, isolated from resupply except by inclusion in the Hump airlift, would be plagued by logistical problems.

Earl S. Hoag

Gen. Earl S. Hoag on 15 October.
In October 1943, he became commanding general of the India-China Wing of Air Transport Command, which operated supply and sustainment flights over "The Hump" between India and China.