The Philosophy of Freedom

Philosophy of Freedom
The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).wikipedia
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Rudolf Steiner

SteinerDr. Rudolf SteinerSteiner, Rudolf
The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).
Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom.

Free will

freedomfreewillfreedom of the will
He proposes (1) that through introspective observation we can become conscious of the motivations of our actions, and (2) that the sole possibility of human freedom, if it exists at all, must be sought in an awareness of the motives of our actions.
Rudolf Steiner, who collaborated in a complete edition of Arthur Schopenhauer's work, wrote The Philosophy of Freedom, which focuses on the problem of free will.

Anthroposophy

anthroposophistanthroposophicalanthroposophic
The early work of the founder of anthroposophy, Rudolf Steiner, culminated in his Philosophy of Freedom (also translated as The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity and Intuitive Thinking as a Spiritual Path).

Situational ethics

situationalSituation ethicssituation
Between them, however, is an individual insight, a partly situational ethic, that arises neither from abstract principles nor from our bodily impulses.

Sergei O. Prokofieff

Sergei ProkofieffProkofieffProkofieff, Sergei O.

Michael Henry Wilson

Michael Wilson
He translated the central philosophical work of Rudolf Steiner, The Philosophy of Freedom as well as other works.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).

Western esotericism

esotericesotericismesotericist
The Philosophy of Freedom is the fundamental philosophical work of the philosopher and esotericist Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Originally published in 1894 in German as Die Philosophie der Freiheit, with a second edition published in 1918, the work has appeared under a number of English titles, including The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity (the title Steiner proposed for the English-language translation ), The Philosophy of Freedom, and Intuitive Thinking as a Spiritual Path.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
The appearance of The Philosophy of Freedom in 1894 was preceded by his publications on Goethe, focusing on epistemology and the philosophy of science, particularly Goethe the Scientist (1883) and The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World Conception (1886).

Philosophy of science

philosopher of sciencephilosophers of sciencephilosophy
The appearance of The Philosophy of Freedom in 1894 was preceded by his publications on Goethe, focusing on epistemology and the philosophy of science, particularly Goethe the Scientist (1883) and The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World Conception (1886).

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
In 1891, Steiner presented his doctoral dissertation, an epistemological study that includes discussion of Kant's and Fichte's theories of knowledge.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
In 1891, Steiner presented his doctoral dissertation, an epistemological study that includes discussion of Kant's and Fichte's theories of knowledge.

Franz Brentano

BrentanoDescriptive psychology (Brentano)Franz
While a student in Vienna, Steiner attended some of the lectures of Franz Brentano, an important precursor of the phenomenological movement in philosophy (see School of Brentano).

Phenomenology (philosophy)

phenomenologyphenomenologicalphenomenologist
While a student in Vienna, Steiner attended some of the lectures of Franz Brentano, an important precursor of the phenomenological movement in philosophy (see School of Brentano).

School of Brentano

Brentano and his school
While a student in Vienna, Steiner attended some of the lectures of Franz Brentano, an important precursor of the phenomenological movement in philosophy (see School of Brentano).

On the Aesthetic Education of Man

Über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen
Steiner's approach to freedom was also in part inspired by Schiller's On the Aesthetic Education of Man and a response to the scientific works of Goethe, whom Steiner believed had not focused sufficiently on the role of thinking in developing inner freedom.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

GoetheJohann Wolfgang GoetheJohann von Goethe
Steiner's approach to freedom was also in part inspired by Schiller's On the Aesthetic Education of Man and a response to the scientific works of Goethe, whom Steiner believed had not focused sufficiently on the role of thinking in developing inner freedom.

Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure ReasonTranscendental AestheticEmpirical realism
Steiner was also deeply affected as a young man by Kant's argument in the Critique of Pure Reason that we cannot know things as they are in themselves, and he devotes a long chapter of The Philosophy of Freedom, "Are there Limits to Knowledge?", to a refutation of this view, arguing that there are in principle no limits to knowledge.

Baruch Spinoza

SpinozaBenedict de SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
Steiner's argument in favour of freedom also responds to determinists such as Spinoza, for whom human action is just as much determined as anything else in the necessity that governs nature as a whole.

George Berkeley

BerkeleyBishop BerkeleyEsse est percipi
Other philosophers discussed or mentioned in The Philosophy of Freedom include George Berkeley, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Descartes, Ernst Haeckel, Robert Hamerling, von Hartmann, Hegel, David Hume, Johannes Kreyenbuehl, Otto Liebmann, Friedrich Paulsen, Paul Rée, Johannes Rehmke, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, and David Strauss.

Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis

Pierre Jean George CabanisCabanisPierre Cabanis
Other philosophers discussed or mentioned in The Philosophy of Freedom include George Berkeley, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Descartes, Ernst Haeckel, Robert Hamerling, von Hartmann, Hegel, David Hume, Johannes Kreyenbuehl, Otto Liebmann, Friedrich Paulsen, Paul Rée, Johannes Rehmke, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, and David Strauss.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
Other philosophers discussed or mentioned in The Philosophy of Freedom include George Berkeley, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Descartes, Ernst Haeckel, Robert Hamerling, von Hartmann, Hegel, David Hume, Johannes Kreyenbuehl, Otto Liebmann, Friedrich Paulsen, Paul Rée, Johannes Rehmke, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, and David Strauss.

Ernst Haeckel

HaeckelErnst Heinrich HaeckelHaeckel, Ernst
Other philosophers discussed or mentioned in The Philosophy of Freedom include George Berkeley, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Descartes, Ernst Haeckel, Robert Hamerling, von Hartmann, Hegel, David Hume, Johannes Kreyenbuehl, Otto Liebmann, Friedrich Paulsen, Paul Rée, Johannes Rehmke, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, and David Strauss.

Robert Hamerling

Other philosophers discussed or mentioned in The Philosophy of Freedom include George Berkeley, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Descartes, Ernst Haeckel, Robert Hamerling, von Hartmann, Hegel, David Hume, Johannes Kreyenbuehl, Otto Liebmann, Friedrich Paulsen, Paul Rée, Johannes Rehmke, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Herbert Spencer, and David Strauss.