The Raven

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"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.wikipedia
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Edgar Allan Poe

PoeEdgar PoeEdgar Allen Poe
"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication.

The Philosophy of Composition

the death of a beautiful woman
Poe claimed to have written the poem logically and methodically, intending to create a poem that would appeal to both critical and popular tastes, as he explained in his 1846 follow-up essay, "The Philosophy of Composition".
Poe uses the composition of his own poem "The Raven" as an example.

Alliteration

alliterativealliterationsalliterating
Poe borrows the complex rhythm and meter of Elizabeth Barrett's poem "Lady Geraldine's Courtship", and makes use of internal rhyme as well as alliteration throughout.
The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe has many examples of alliteration including the following line: "And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain".

Barnaby Rudge

Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'EightyDolly Vardena character
The poem was inspired in part by a talking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty by Charles Dickens.
Grip the raven inspired Edgar Allan Poe to write his most famous poem, "The Raven."

Narrative poetry

narrative poemnarrative poemsnarrative
"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

Trochaic octameter

Generally, the meter is trochaic octameter – eight trochaic feet per line, each foot having one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable.
The best known work in trochaic octameter is Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", which utilizes five lines of trochaic octameter followed by a "short" half line (in reality, 7 beats) that, by the end of the poem, takes on the qualities of a refrain.

Graham's Magazine

Graham’s Lady’s and Gentleman’s MagazineGraham's American Monthly Magazine of Literature and ArtGraham's Magazine of 1843–44
Poe first brought "The Raven" to his friend and former employer George Rex Graham of Graham's Magazine in Philadelphia.
Graham's began rejecting Poe's submissions and passed up the chance to publish "The Raven".

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

Elizabeth BarrettElizabeth BrowningElizabeth
Poe borrows the complex rhythm and meter of Elizabeth Barrett's poem "Lady Geraldine's Courtship", and makes use of internal rhyme as well as alliteration throughout.
Edgar Allan Poe was inspired by her poem Lady Geraldine's Courtship and specifically borrowed the poem's metre for his poem The Raven.

Rhyme scheme

rhyming patternABAB CDCD EFEF GGrhyming
The rhyme scheme is ABCBBB, or AA,B,CC,CB,B,B when accounting for internal rhyme.
"The Raven" stanza: ABCBBB, or AA,B,CC,CB,B,B when accounting for internal rhyme, as used by Edgar Allan Poe in his poem "The Raven"

The Conqueror Worm

poem of the same nameeponymous poempoem
In addition to the title poem, it included "The Valley of Unrest", "Bridal Ballad", "The City in the Sea", "Eulalie", "The Conqueror Worm", "The Haunted Palace" and eleven others.
"The Conqueror Worm" also uses the word "evermore", which would later evolve into "nevermore" in Poe's famous poem "The Raven" in 1845.

Octameter

octametric
Poe, however, claimed the poem was a combination of octameter acatalectic, heptameter catalectic, and tetrameter catalectic.
(Edgar Allan Poe, "The Raven")

Nathaniel Parker Willis

N. P. WillisN.P. WillisNathaniel Parker Willis Monument
Nathaniel Parker Willis, editor of the Mirror, introduced it as "unsurpassed in English poetry for subtle conception, masterly ingenuity of versification, and consistent, sustaining of imaginative lift ... It will stick to the memory of everybody who reads it."
While Willis was editor of the Evening Mirror, its issue for January 29, 1845, included the first printing of Poe's poem "The Raven" with his name attached.

Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe

VirginiaVirginia Clemm
Beyond the poetics of it, the lost Lenore may have been inspired by events in Poe's own life as well, either to the early loss of his mother, Eliza Poe, or the long illness endured by his wife, Virginia.
Her struggles with illness and death are believed to have affected his poetry and prose, where dying young women appear as a frequent motif, as in "Annabel Lee", "The Raven", and "Ligeia".

Gustave Doré

DoréGustave DoreDoré Gallery
"The Raven" was published independently with lavish woodcuts by Gustave Doré in 1884 (New York: Harper & Brothers).
Doré also illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven", an endeavor that earned him 30,000 francs from publisher Harper & Brothers in 1883.

The Raven in popular culture

referenced throughout popular cultureThe Raven
The poem is additionally referenced throughout popular culture in films, television, music, and video games.
Edgar Allan Poe's poem "The Raven" has been frequently referenced and parodied in contemporary culture.

The American Review: A Whig Journal

American Whig ReviewThe American ReviewAmerican Review
Poe then sold the poem to The American Review, which paid him $9 for it, and printed "The Raven" in its February 1845 issue under the pseudonym "Quarles", a reference to the English poet Francis Quarles.
The American Review had the distinction of being the first authorized periodical to print "The Raven" in February 1845.

George Rex Graham

George R. Graham
Poe first brought "The Raven" to his friend and former employer George Rex Graham of Graham's Magazine in Philadelphia.
Allegedly, Poe had offered first publication of "The Raven" to Graham, who refused.

Baltimore Ravens

RavensBaltimoreBAL
The name of the Baltimore Ravens, a professional American football team, was inspired by the poem.
The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven.

Gilead

a specific partGil'adGilad
In 1 Kings 17:1 - 5 Elijah is said be from Gilead, and to have been fed by ravens during a period of drought.
Gilead is mentioned in verse 15 of Edgar Allan Poe's 1845 poem, The Raven.

Thomas Holley Chivers

After Poe's death, his friend Thomas Holley Chivers said "The Raven" was plagiarized from one of his poems.
After Poe's death, Chivers accused Poe of plagiarizing both "The Raven" and "Ulalume" from his own work though other critics suggested Chivers's Eonchs of Ruby were a "mediocre restatement" of Poe's poems.

Édouard Manet

ManetEdouard ManetManet, Édouard
In 1875, a French edition with English and French text, Le Corbeau, was published with lithographs by Édouard Manet and translation by the Symbolist Stéphane Mallarmé.
In 1875, a book-length French edition of Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven included lithographs by Manet and translation by Mallarmé.

Stéphane Mallarmé

MallarméMallarmismMallarmé’s
In 1875, a French edition with English and French text, Le Corbeau, was published with lithographs by Édouard Manet and translation by the Symbolist Stéphane Mallarmé.
In 1875, he translated Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven into French, and proto-Impressionist painter Édouard Manet illustrated it.

New-York Mirror

New York Evening MirrorMirrorEvening Mirror
"The Raven" was first attributed to Poe in print in the New York Evening Mirror on January 29, 1845.
In the January 29, 1845 issue, the Mirror was the first to publish Poe's poem "The Raven" with the author's name.

Lenore

the poem
"Lenore" – an earlier poem by Poe
* Death of a beautiful woman (see also "Annabel Lee", "Eulalie", "The Raven", "Ulalume"; in Poe's short stories, see also "Berenice", "Eleonora", "Morella").

Eulalie

In addition to the title poem, it included "The Valley of Unrest", "Bridal Ballad", "The City in the Sea", "Eulalie", "The Conqueror Worm", "The Haunted Palace" and eleven others.
The poem was first published as "Eulalie — A Song" in the July 1845 issue of the American Review — it was the only new poem Poe published that year, other than "The Raven".