The Secret History of the Mongols

Secret History of the MongolsThe Secret History of MongolsSecret HistoryMongol Empirethe ''Secret History of the Mongols
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.wikipedia
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Mongolian script

MongolianMongol scriptTraditional Mongolian alphabet
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language. The author is anonymous and probably originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty.
The principal documents of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab–Mongolian and Persian–Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc. The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, these vowels are still distinct); inter-vocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system).

Genghis Khan

GenghisChingiz KhanTemüjin
It was written for the Mongol royal family some time after the 1227 death of Genghis Khan (also known as Temujin).
The Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader.

Hoelun

OelunQueen Hoelunthe boy's mother
The description of Temüjin's life begins with the kidnapping of his mother, Hoelun, by his father Yesügei.
Much of the current knowledge about her life comes from The Secret History of the Mongols.

Middle Mongol language

Middle MongolianMiddle MongolMongolian
Linguistically, it provides the richest source of pre-classical Mongolian and Middle Mongolian.
If so, the earliest surviving Mongolian monument would be an edict of Töregene of 1240 and the oldest surviving text arguably the Secret History of the Mongols, a document that must originally have been written in Mongolian script arguably in 1252, but which only survives in an edited version as a textbook for learning Mongolian from the Ming period, thus reflecting the pronunciation of Middle Mongol from the second half of the 14th century.

Altan Tobchi

another anonymous work of the same title
Several passages of the Secret History appear in slightly different versions in the 17th-century Mongolian chronicle Altan Tobchi ("Golden Summary").
It is generally considered second in dignity to the Secret History of the Mongols as a historical chronicle and piece of classical literature.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese characterChinese:
The author is anonymous and probably originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty.
Most notably, the only surviving copies of The Secret History of the Mongols were written in such a manner; the Chinese characters 忙豁侖紐察 脫[卜]察安 (pinyin: mánghuōlúnniǔchá tuō[bo]chá'ān) is the rendering of Mongγol-un niγuca tobčiyan, the title in Mongolian.

Mongolian language

MongolianMongolKhalkha-Mongolian
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.
From the 13th to the 15th centuries, Mongolian language texts were written in four scripts (not counting some vocabulary written in Western scripts): Uyghur Mongolian (UM) script (an adaptation of the Uyghur alphabet), 'Phags-pa script (Ph) (used in decrees), Chinese (SM) (The Secret History of the Mongols), and Arabic (AM) (used in dictionaries).

Jamukha

JamuqaJamugaJadaran
According to The Secret History of the Mongols, when Börte, wife of Temüjin, was abducted by the Three Merkits; Wang Khan, Jamukha and Temüjin combined forces against the Merkits to recover her.

Toghrul

Wang KhanOng KhanTooril Khan
Main source on his life is The Secret History of Mongols.

Mongol Empire

MongolMongolsMongolian Empire
It was written for the Mongol royal family some time after the 1227 death of Genghis Khan (also known as Temujin).
The oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language is The Secret History of the Mongols, which was written for the royal family some time after Genghis Khan's death in 1227.

Taichiud

SuldusTayichiudTaichuud
In the Secret History of the Mongols, they were portrayed as bitter enemies of Genghis Khan.

Yesugei

YesügeiYesukheiYesu Hei
The description of Temüjin's life begins with the kidnapping of his mother, Hoelun, by his father Yesügei.
The Secret History of the Mongols records that in his youth Temüjin killed his brother Behter in a fight for food.

Francis Woodman Cleaves

Francis CleavesCleaves, Francis Woodman
Arthur Waley published a partial translation of the Secret History, but the first full translation into English was by Francis Woodman Cleaves, The Secret History of the Mongols: For the First Time Done into English out of the Original Tongue and Provided with an Exegetical Commentary.
He is well known for his translation of The Secret History of the Mongols.

The Secret History of the Mongol Queens

The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire
* [[The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire]], a 2010 book by Jack Weatherford
Weatherford suggests in the introduction that the unknown censor who deliberately cut away part of The Secret History of the Mongols did so in order to obscure Mongol women who became too powerful.

Otgonbayar Ershuu

One of the longtime works of Otgonbayar Ershuu has been his "Secret History of the Mongols – related in the style of Mongolian painting as a comic."

Palladius (Kafarov)

Pyotr KafarovPalladius KafarovPyotr Ivanovich Kafarov
The first to discover the Secret History for the West and offer a translation from the Chinese glossary was the Russian sinologist Palladiy Kafarov in 1866.
During his stay in China, he discovered and published many invaluable manuscripts, including The Secret History of the Mongols.

Tsendiin Damdinsüren

Ts. DamdinsürenTsendiin DamdinsurenČe. Damdinsürüngs
1949). Tsendiin Damdinsüren translated the chronicle into Khalkha Mongolian in 1947.
He also produced prose and literary studies, and a translation of The Secret History of the Mongols into modern Mongolian.

Igor de Rachewiltz

de Rachewiltz, IgorIgor '''de RachewiltzRachewiltz, Igor de
The archaic language adopted by Cleaves was not satisfying to all and, between 1972 and 1985, Igor de Rachewiltz published a fresh translation in eleven volumes of the series Papers on Far Eastern History accompanied by extensive footnotes commenting not only on the translation but also various aspects of Mongolian culture.
He published a translation of The Secret History of the Mongols in eleven volumes of Papers on Far Eastern History (1971–1985).

Arthur Waley

Waley, ArthurArthur David WaleyWaley
Arthur Waley published a partial translation of the Secret History, but the first full translation into English was by Francis Woodman Cleaves, The Secret History of the Mongols: For the First Time Done into English out of the Original Tongue and Provided with an Exegetical Commentary.

Boris Pankratov

B. I. Pankratov
B. I. Pankratov published a translation into Russian in 1962.
*. A translation and study of The Secret History of the Mongols.

Khalkha Mongolian

KhalkhaKhalkha dialectModern Mongolian
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language. 1949). Tsendiin Damdinsüren translated the chronicle into Khalkha Mongolian in 1947.

Transcription (linguistics)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscribe
The author is anonymous and probably originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty.

Ming dynasty

MingMing ChinaMing Empire
The author is anonymous and probably originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty.

History of Yuan

YuanshiYuan shiBook of Yuan
Also known as Tobchiyan ( or ) in the History of Yuan.

Mongols

MongolMongolianMongolians
The Secret History is regarded as the single most significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan.