Theocracy

theocratictheocraciesreligious authoritytheocratic statetheocrattheocratic governmentecclesiastical statehierocracyreligious authoritiesNeo-theocracy
Theocracy is a form of government in which God or a deity of some type is recognized as the supreme ruling authority, giving divine guidance to human intermediaries that manage the day to day affairs of the government.wikipedia
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State religion

Established Churchofficial religionestablished
Theocracy is distinguished from other, secular forms of government that have a state religion, or are influenced by theological or moral concepts, and monarchies held "By the Grace of God".
A state with an official religion, while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy, a country whose rulers have both secular and spiritual authority.

Caesaropapism

CaesaropapistCesaropapismAbolished
These characteristics apply also to a caesaropapist regime.
In this form, caesaropapism inverts theocracy (or hierocracy in Weber) in which institutions of the church control the state.

Vatican City

VaticanVatican City Statethe Vatican
In 1929, with the Lateran Treaty signed with the Italian Government, the new state of Vatican City (population 842) – with no connection with the former Papal States – was formally created and recognized as an independent state.
The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state (a type of theocracy) ruled by the pope who is the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Iran has been described as a "theocratic republic" (by the CIA World Factbook), and its constitution has been described as a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements" by Francis Fukuyama.
Iran's political system has elements of a presidential democracy with a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader".

Iranian Revolution

Islamic Revolution1979 Revolution1979 Iranian Revolution
Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty.
The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was experiencing relative prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians, and replaced a pro-Western authoritarian monarchy with an anti-Western theocracy based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih).

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government.
Historically prevalent forms of government include monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny.

Tibetan dual system of government

dual system of governmentChhoe-sid-nyiduality of power
This form of government is known as the dual system of government.
Because the ultimate ruler is the patron and protector of state religion, some aspects of the dual system of government may be likened to the Supreme Governance of the Church of England, or even to theocracy.

Imperial cult

emperor worshipdeifiedDivine
The imperial cults in Ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire, as well as numerous other monarchies, deified the ruling monarch.
This system of government combines theocracy with an absolute monarchy.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
In the most common usage of the term, some civil rulers are leaders of the dominant religion (e.g., the Byzantine emperor as patron and defender of the official Church); the government proclaims it rules on behalf of God or a higher power, as specified by the local religion, and divine approval of government institutions and laws.
The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy, said to be ruled by God working through the Emperor.

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

TaipingHeavenly KingdomTaiping Tianguo
The Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace in 1860s Qing China was a heterodox Christian theocracy led by a person who said that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ, Hong Xiuquan.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, literally the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government.
There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority.

Oligarchy

oligarchicoligarchiesoligarch
Josephus argued that while mankind had developed many forms of rule, most could be subsumed under the following three types: monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy.

Supreme Leader of Iran

Supreme LeaderIran's Supreme LeaderIranian Supreme Leader
The head of state, or "Supreme Leader", is a faqih (scholar of Islamic law),
The constitution of Iran combines concepts of both democracy and theocracy, theocracy in the form of Khomeini's concept of vilayat-e faqih (Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist), as expressed in the Islamic Republic.

Theodemocracy

theodemocraticMormon theocracyProphet
This original organization was based upon a concept called theodemocracy, a governmental system combining Biblical theocracy with mid-19th-century American political ideals. After the abortive Utah War of 1857–1858, the replacement of Young by an outside Federal Territorial Governor, intense federal prosecution of LDS Church leaders, and the eventual resolution of controversies regarding plural marriage, and accession by Utah to statehood, the apparent temporal aspects of LDS theodemocracy receded markedly.
Theodemocracy is a theocratic political system propounded by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement.

Death of Joseph Smith

Smith's deathkilleddeath
The campaign ended when Smith was killed by a mob while in the Carthage, Illinois, jail on June 27, 1844.
The newspaper's first (and only) issue was deeply critical of Smith and other church leaders—reporting that Smith was practicing polygamy and claiming he intended to set himself up as a theocratic king.

Emperor of China

emperoremperors of ChinaChinese emperor
The titles combined by Shi Huangdi to form his new title of emperor were originally applied to god-like beings who ordered the heavens and earth and to culture heroes credited with the invention of agriculture, clothing, music, astrology, &c.
On that account, some modern scholars translate the title as "thearch".

Holy See

VaticanRomethe Vatican
Following the Capture of Rome on 20 September 1870, the Papal States including Rome with the Vatican were annexed by the Kingdom of Italy.

Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Iranian constitutionconstitutionConstitution of Iran
Iran has been described as a "theocratic republic" (by the CIA World Factbook), and its constitution has been described as a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements" by Francis Fukuyama.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS ChurchLatter-day SaintChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The question of theocracy has been debated at extensively by historians regarding the Mormon communities in Illinois, and especially in Utah.
Young incorporated the LDS Church as a legal entity, and initially governed both the church and the state as a theocratic leader.

Religious law

religious observancereligiousChurch law
A theocracy is a form of government in which a God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
Historians debate the extent to which Geneva, Switzerland, in the days of John Calvin (1509–64) was a theocracy.
Historians debate the extent to which Geneva was a theocracy.

List of fictional theocracies

Depictions of a fictional theocratic societies recur in science fiction, speculative fiction and fantasy.

Utah War

Utah ExpeditionJohnston's ArmyMormon War
After the abortive Utah War of 1857–1858, the replacement of Young by an outside Federal Territorial Governor, intense federal prosecution of LDS Church leaders, and the eventual resolution of controversies regarding plural marriage, and accession by Utah to statehood, the apparent temporal aspects of LDS theodemocracy receded markedly.
Many east-coast politicians, such as President James Buchanan, were alarmed by the semi-theocratic dominance of the Utah Territory under Brigham Young.

Ganden Phodrang

Ganden PodrangTibetTibetan Government
In this respect, it continues the traditions of the former government of Tibet, which was ruled by the Dalai Lamas and their ministers, with a specific role reserved for a class of monk officials.

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

MongoliaAutonomous MongoliaBogd Khaganate
The Bogd Khaanate period of Mongolia (1911–19) is also cited as a former Buddhist theocracy.