Theology

theologiantheologicaltheologianstheological studiestheologisttheologicallySacred Theologyreligious scholarDiploma in TheologyProtestant theologian
As defined by Scholasticism, theology is constituted by a triple aspect: what is taught by God, what teaches of God and what leads to God (Theologia a Deo docetur, Deum docet, et ad Deum ducit).wikipedia
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Revelation

divine revelationrevealedrevealed religion
It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but also deals with religious epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

Seminary

theological collegeseminariesseminarian
Theology is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry.

History of theology

medieval theologytheological historyByzantine theology
The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts.
Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" around 380 BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine". Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical (concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance).
In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law.

Meaning of life

meaningPurpose in lifemeaning in life
Theology then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
The search for life's meaning has produced much philosophical, scientific, theological, and metaphysical speculation throughout history.

Philosophy of religion

philosopher of religionreligionphilosophy
The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, and increasingly through the psychology of religion and neurotheology.
The philosophy of religion has been distinguished from theology by pointing out that, for theology, "its critical reflections are based on religious convictions".

Discipline (academia)

academic disciplinedisciplinesdiscipline
Theology is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries.
The University of Paris in 1231 consisted of four faculties: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law and Arts.

Apologetics

apologistapologeticapologists
Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge (e.g. biblical criticism), or oppose (e.g. irreligion) a religious tradition or world-view.
In 21st-century usage, apologetics is often identified with debates over religion and theology.

Supernatural

supernaturalismsupernatural powersspiritual
It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but also deals with religious epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential, philosophical, ethnographic, historical, and others) to help understand, explain, test, critique, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics.
Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology (ancilla theologiae) and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture.

God

Supreme BeingLordnature of God
Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but also willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind.
In this view, questions of the supernatural, such as those relating to the existence and nature of God, are non-empirical and are the proper domain of theology.

World view

worldviewWeltanschauungworld-view
Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge (e.g. biblical criticism), or oppose (e.g. irreligion) a religious tradition or world-view.
Anyone attempting to accommodate concepts such as an omnipotent, personal creator's sacrificial, emotional, spiritual and attitudinal demands being made of any man-made entity, superintelligent or not, could be said to have strayed into terra prohibita theologically, of course.

Natural theology

Bridgewater TreatisesBridgewater Treatisenatural religion
From the 17th century onwards, it also became possible to use the term theology to refer to study of religious ideas and teachings that are not specifically Christian (e.g., in the term natural theology which denoted theology based on reasoning from natural facts independent of specifically Christian revelation, ) or that are specific to another religion (see below).
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.

Sentences

Four Books of SentencesBook of SentencesSentences of Peter Lombard
In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or (more precisely) the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition (the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard's Sentences, a book of extracts from the Church Fathers).
The Four Books of Sentences (Libri Quattuor Sententiarum) is a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the 12th century.

Myth

mythologymythologicalmyths
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical (concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance).
Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology; meanwhile, identifying religious stories of colonised cultures, such as stories in Hinduism, as myths enabled Western scholars to imply that they were of lower truth-value than the stories of Christianity.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on God" around 380 BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch.
John Palmer notes "Parmenides’ distinction among the principal modes of being and his derivation of the attributes that must belong to what must be, simply as such, qualify him to be seen as the founder of metaphysics or ontology as a domain of inquiry distinct from theology."

Heathenry (new religious movement)

Germanic neopaganismHeathenryOdinism
Nevertheless, theology has been applied in some sectors across contemporary Pagan communities, including Wicca, Heathenry, Druidry and Kemetism.
Heathenry does not have a unified theology but is typically polytheistic, centering on a pantheon of deities from pre-Christian Germanic Europe.

Wicca

WiccanWiccansEclectic Wicca
Nevertheless, theology has been applied in some sectors across contemporary Pagan communities, including Wicca, Heathenry, Druidry and Kemetism.
Wicca draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan and 20th-century hermetic motifs for its theological structure and ritual practices.

Theology proper

It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the fourteenth century, although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God – a discourse now sometimes called theology proper.
The term theology (lit.

Outline of religion

ReligionList of religious topicsoutline
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential, philosophical, ethnographic, historical, and others) to help understand, explain, test, critique, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics.

Sharia

Islamic lawSharia lawShariah
Islamic theological discussion that parallels Christian theological discussion is called Kalam; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of Sharia or Fiqh.
Classical jurisprudence has been described as "one of the major intellectual achievements of Islam" and its importance in Islam has been compared to that of theology in Christianity.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
In the Renaissance, especially with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" (theologia poetica) and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority.
However, the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
Within Hindu philosophy, there is a tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God (termed "Brahman", Paramatma and Bhagavan in some schools of Hindu thought) and of the Atman (soul).

Studium generale

studiumstudia generaliaStudia Generali
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools.
In the 13th century, the term gradually acquired a more precise (but still unofficial) meaning as a place that (1) received students from all places, (2) taught the arts and had at least one of the higher faculties (that is, theology, law or medicine) and (3) that a significant part of the teaching was done by masters.

Charles University

Charles University in PragueUniversity of PraguePrague
Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University in Kraków) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt).
On 26 January 1347 the pope issued the bull establishing a university in Prague, modeled on the University of Paris, with the full (4) number of faculties, that is including theological.