Therapy

therapeutictherapisttreatmenttherapeuticsmedical treatmenttherapiestreatmentsfirst-line treatmentfirst-linesupportive
A therapy or medical treatment (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or T x ) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.wikipedia
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Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
Thus, in health care contexts (where its senses are always noncount), the word care tends to imply a broad idea of everything done to protect or improve someone's health (for example, as in the terms preventive care and primary care, which connote ongoing action), although it sometimes implies a narrower idea (for example, in the simplest cases of wound care or postanesthesia care, a few particular steps are sufficient, and the patient's interaction with that provider is soon finished).
Health care, health-care, or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people.

Patient

outpatientinpatientpatients
The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, nurse, psychologist, dentist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician.
Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison.

Adjuvant therapy

adjuvantadjuvant chemotherapyadjunct
Adjuvant therapy is therapy given in addition to the primary, main, or initial treatment, but simultaneously (as opposed to second-line therapy).
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

Combination therapy

adjunctive therapycombinationcombination therapies
Often multiple therapies may be tried simultaneously (combination therapy or polytherapy).
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality.

Chemotherapy regimen

chemotherapy regimensregimenchemotherapy protocol
An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of therapy is very extensive is chemotherapy regimens.
The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease.

Premedication

premedicatedpremedications
Premedication is conceptually not far from this, but the words are not interchangeable; cytotoxic drugs to put a tumor "on the ropes" before surgery delivers the "knockout punch" are called neoadjuvant chemotherapy, not premedication, whereas things like anesthetics or prophylactic antibiotics before dental surgery are called premedication.
Premedication is using medication before some other therapy (usually surgery or chemotherapy) to prepare for that forthcoming therapy.

Empiric therapy

empirical treatmentEmpiric antibioticsempirical therapy
Empiric therapy or empirical therapy is medical treatment or therapy based on experience and, more specifically, therapy begun on the basis of a clinical "educated guess" in the absence of complete or perfect information.

Neoadjuvant therapy

neoadjuvantneoadjuvant chemotherapyChemotherapy before surgery
Neoadjuvant therapy is therapy that is begun before the main therapy.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

Destination therapy

Destination therapy is a therapy that is final rather than being a transitional stage until another therapy—thus, in transportation metaphor, a destination in itself rather than merely a bridge or road to the destination.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinologyvaccinated
Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer, which are being investigated).

Pharmacotherapy

drug therapytreatmenttherapy
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.

Maintenance therapy

maintenance regimen
Maintenance therapy is a medical therapy that is designed to help a primary treatment succeed.

Salvage therapy

rescue therapysalvage surgery
Salvage therapy, also known as rescue therapy, is a form of therapy given after an ailment does not respond to standard therapy.

Treatment of cancer

cancer treatmentantitumortreatment
Therefore, cure with nonnegligible adverse effects may be accepted as a practical goal in some cases; and besides curative intent, practical goals of therapy can also include (1) suppressing the cancer to a subclinical state and maintaining that state for years of good quality of life (that is, treating the cancer as a chronic disease), and (2) palliative care without curative intent (for advanced-stage metastatic cancers).

Oxygen therapy

oxygensupplemental oxygenOxygen first aid
Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.

Indication (medicine)

indicationindicationsindicated
As a rule, each therapy has indications and contraindications.
Preferred drugs (and other treatments) are also referred to a "first line" or "primary" while others are called "second line", "third line" etc.

Health care in the United States

health carehealthcareUnited States healthcare
It is controversial in American health care because unlike conventional decision-making about what constitutes first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy, which in the U.S. reflects safety and efficacy first and cost only according to the patient's wishes, step therapy attempts to mix cost containment by someone other than the patient (third-party payers) into the algorithm.
Other methods of medical treatment are being practiced more frequently than before.

Phage therapy

bacteriophage therapy phage therapiesbacteriophage (phage) therapy
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.

Cure

Mental health

behavioral healthmentalmental hygiene
However, in the context of mental health, the term therapy may refer specifically to psychotherapy.
Expressive therapies or creative arts therapies are a form of psychotherapy that involves the arts or art-making.

Cell therapy

cell therapiescellular therapyallogenic stem therapy
Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected, grafted or implanted into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.

Protein replacement therapy

protein therapyTherapeutic Proteins
Protein replacement therapy is a medical treatment that supplements or replaces a protein in patients in whom that particular protein is deficient or absent.

Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headaches
Guidelines are fairly consistent in rating topiramate, divalproex/sodium valproate, propranolol, and metoprolol as having the highest level of evidence for first-line use.