Theravada

Theravada BuddhismTheravādaTheravada BuddhistTheravāda BuddhismBuddhistTheravadinTherevada BuddhismTheravada BuddhistsTheravadanTheravādin
Theravāda (Pāli, lit. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existent school.wikipedia
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Pāli Canon

Pali CanoncanonicalTipiṭaka
The school's adherents, termed Theravādins, have preserved their version of the Gautama Buddha's teaching in the Pāli Canon. It was in Sri Lanka that the Pāli Canon was written down and the school's commentary literature developed.
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.

Pali

PāliPali languagePāḷi
Theravāda (Pāli, lit. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existent school. The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as the school's sacred language and lingua franca.
It is widely studied because it is the language of the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka, and is the sacred language of Theravāda Buddhism.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
Theravāda (Pāli, lit. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existent school.
Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle").

Vipassana movement

VipassanaInsight Meditation movementmodern vipassana
During the modern era, new developments have included Buddhist modernism, the Vipassana movement which reinvigorated Theravāda meditation practice and the Thai Forest Tradition which reemphasized forest monasticism.
The Vipassanā movement, also called the Insight Meditation Movement and American vipassana movement, refers to a branch of modern Burmese Theravāda Buddhism which gained widespread popularity since the 1950s, and to its western derivatives which were popularised since the 1970s, helping give rise to the mindfulness movement.

Buddhism in Southeast Asia

Southeast AsiaBuddhistoriginally Buddhist countries
From Sri Lanka, the Theravāda Mahāvihāra tradition subsequently spread to the rest of Southeast Asia.
Buddhism in Southeast Asia includes a variety of traditions of Buddhism including two main traditions: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Theravāda Buddhism.

Thai Forest Tradition

Thai forest monksBuddhist forest monasticsBuddho
During the modern era, new developments have included Buddhist modernism, the Vipassana movement which reinvigorated Theravāda meditation practice and the Thai Forest Tradition which reemphasized forest monasticism.
The Kammaṭṭhāna Forest Tradition of Thailand (kammaṭṭhāna; meaning "place of work"), commonly known in the West as the Thai Forest Tradition, is a lineage of Theravada Buddhist monasticism.

Atthakatha

commentariescommentaryPali commentaries
It was in Sri Lanka that the Pāli Canon was written down and the school's commentary literature developed.
Aṭṭhakathā (Pali for explanation, commentary) refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka.

Sacred language

liturgical languageliturgicalritual language
The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as the school's sacred language and lingua franca.
Theravada Buddhism uses Pali as its main liturgical language and prefers its scriptures to be studied in the original Pali.

Buddhist modernism

Buddhist modernistNeo-BuddhismProtestant Buddhism
During the modern era, new developments have included Buddhist modernism, the Vipassana movement which reinvigorated Theravāda meditation practice and the Thai Forest Tradition which reemphasized forest monasticism.
The Neo-Buddhism movements differ in their doctrines and practices from the historical, mainstream Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist traditions.

Vinaya

monastic disciplineVinaya-pitakaVinaya-piṭaka
At issue was its adherents' desire to add new Vinaya rules tightening monastic discipline, against the wishes of the majority Mahāsāṃghika.
Three parallel Vinaya traditions remain in use by modern monastic communities: the Theravada (Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia), Mulasarvastivada (Tibetan Buddhism and the Himalayan region) and Dharmaguptaka (East Asian Buddhism).

Mahīśāsaka

MahisasakaMahīśasaka
Later, the Vibhajjavādins, in turn, is said to have split into four groups: the Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, Dharmaguptaka in the north, and the Tāmraparṇīya in South India.
The Theravādin Dipavamsa asserts that the Mahīśāsaka sect gave rise to the Sarvāstivāda sect.

Kathavatthu

KathāvatthuKatthavatthu
The elder monk Moggaliputta-Tissa chaired the Third council and compiled the Kathavatthu ("Points of Controversy"), a refutation of various opposing views which is an important work in the Theravāda Abhidhamma.
Kv, Kvu), translated as "Points of Controversy", is a Buddhist scripture, one of the seven books in the Theravada Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Bodhisattva

BodhisattvasBoddhisattvaBoddhisatva
The first records of Buddha images come from the reign of the King Vasabha (65–109 BCE), and after the 3rd century CE the historical record shows a growth of the worship of Buddha images as well as Bodhisattvas.
In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta) refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has also received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so.

Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya

MahaviharaMahāvihāraMahāvihāravāsins
From Sri Lanka, the Theravāda Mahāvihāra tradition subsequently spread to the rest of Southeast Asia. Modern Theravāda derives from the Mahāvihāra sect, a Sri Lankan branch of the Vibhajjavādins, a sub-sect of the Indian Sthavira Nikaya, which began to establish itself on the island from the 3rd century BCE onwards. Prior to the writing of the classic Theravādin Pāli commentaries, there were also various commentaries on the Tipitaka written in the Sinhalese language, such as the Maha-atthakatha ("Great commentary"), the main commentary tradition of the Mahavihara monks. Over much of the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there were three subdivisions of Theravāda, consisting of the monks of the Mahāvihāra, Abhayagiri vihāra and Jetavana, each of which were based in Anuradhapura. The Tambapaṇṇiya (later Mahāvihāravāsins), was established in Sri Lanka (at Anuradhapura) but active also in Andhra and other parts of South India (Vanavasa in modern Karnataka) and later across South-East Asia.
The Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya was an important mahavihara or large Buddhist monastery for Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

Buddhaghosa

BuddhagosaBuddhaghoṣaBuddhaghosha
Of great importance to the commentary, tradition is the work of the great Theravāda scholastic Buddhaghosa (4th–5th century CE), who is responsible for most of the Theravāda commentarial literature that has survived (any older commentaries have been lost).
Buddhaghosa (Devanāgarī: बुद्धघोस, พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์, ) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada Buddhist commentator, translator and philosopher.

Early Buddhist schools

early Buddhist schoolearly Buddhistearly schools of Buddhism
The name Theravāda comes from Sthāvirīya, one of the early Buddhist schools from which Theravādins trace their school's descent.
At this point, Theravāda tradition maintains that no conflict about what the Buddha taught occurred; the teachings were divided into various parts and each was assigned to an elder and his pupils to commit to memory.

Third Buddhist council

Third Councils
Theravadins' own accounts of their school's origins mention that it received the teachings that were agreed upon during the putative Third Buddhist council held around 250 BCE under the patronage of Indian Emperor Ashoka.
The council is recognized and known to both the Theravada and Mahayana schools, though its importance is central only to the Theravada.

Sinhala language

SinhalaSinhaleseSinhalese language
Prior to the writing of the classic Theravādin Pāli commentaries, there were also various commentaries on the Tipitaka written in the Sinhalese language, such as the Maha-atthakatha ("Great commentary"), the main commentary tradition of the Mahavihara monks.
Sinhala, along with Pali, played a major role in the development of Theravada Buddhist literature.

Visuddhimagga

purificationThe Path of Purification
Buddhaghosa's work on Abhidhamma and Buddhist practice outlined in works such as the Visuddhimagga and the Atthasalini are the most influential texts apart from the Pāli Canon in the Theravādin tradition.
The Visuddhimagga (Pali; English: The Path of Purification), is the 'great treatise' on Theravada Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa approximately in the 5th Century in Sri Lanka.

Moggaliputta-Tissa

Moggaliputta TissaMoggaliputtatissaMogaliputa Tissa
The elder monk Moggaliputta-Tissa chaired the Third council and compiled the Kathavatthu ("Points of Controversy"), a refutation of various opposing views which is an important work in the Theravāda Abhidhamma.
Moggaliputtatissa is seen by the Theravada Buddhist tradition as the founder of "Vibhajjavāda", the tradition of which Theravada is a part as well as the author of the Kathāvatthu.

Abhayagiri vihāra

AbhayagiriAbhayagiri DagabaAbhayagiriya
Over much of the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there were three subdivisions of Theravāda, consisting of the monks of the Mahāvihāra, Abhayagiri vihāra and Jetavana, each of which were based in Anuradhapura.
Abhayagiri Vihāra was a major monastery site of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism that was situated in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.

Anuradhapura

AnuradapuraAnurādhapuraSacred City of Anuradhapura
Over much of the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there were three subdivisions of Theravāda, consisting of the monks of the Mahāvihāra, Abhayagiri vihāra and Jetavana, each of which were based in Anuradhapura. The Tambapaṇṇiya (later Mahāvihāravāsins), was established in Sri Lanka (at Anuradhapura) but active also in Andhra and other parts of South India (Vanavasa in modern Karnataka) and later across South-East Asia.
The city, now a World Heritage site, was the centre of Theravada Buddhism for many centuries.

Dhammapāla

DhammapalaAcariya DhammapalaDharma guardian
Other Theravādin Pāli commentators and writers include Dhammapala and Buddhadatta.
Dhammapāla was the name of two or more great Theravada Buddhist commentators.

Sthavira nikāya

SthaviraSthavirasSthaviravāda
Modern Theravāda derives from the Mahāvihāra sect, a Sri Lankan branch of the Vibhajjavādins, a sub-sect of the Indian Sthavira Nikaya, which began to establish itself on the island from the 3rd century BCE onwards. The name Theravāda comes from Sthāvirīya, one of the early Buddhist schools from which Theravādins trace their school's descent.
According to Skilton, future scholars may determine that a study of the Mahāsāṃghika school will contribute to a better understanding of the early Dhamma-Vinaya than the Theravada school.

Dharmaguptaka

DharmaguptaDharmaguptaka VinayaAbhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra
Later, the Vibhajjavādins, in turn, is said to have split into four groups: the Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, Dharmaguptaka in the north, and the Tāmraparṇīya in South India.
They are one of three surviving Vinaya lineages, along with that of the Theravāda and the Mūlasarvāstivāda.