Thermopylae

Hot Gatesdying at Thermopylaeof ThermopylaeThermopylae-likeThermopylesThermopylæ
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.wikipedia
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Battle of Thermopylae

Thermopylae300 SpartansEpitaph of Simonides
Thermopylae is world-famous for the battle that took place there between the Greek forces (notably the Spartans) and the invading Persian forces, commemorated by Simonides in the famous epitaph, "Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, That here obedient to their laws we lie."
It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae ("The Hot Gates").

Lamia (city)

LamiaZetouniZetounion
In ancient times it was called Malis which was named after the Malians, a Greek tribe that lived near present-day Lamia at the delta of the river, Spercheios in Greece.
In Antiquity, the city played an important role due to its strategic location, controlling the narrow coastal plain above Thermopylae that connected southern Greece with Thessaly and the rest of the Balkans.

Temple of Demeter Amphictyonis

an important temple of Demetertemple of Demeter
In the town of Anthela, the Malians had an important temple of Demeter, an early center of the Anthelan Amphictiony.
The Temple of Demeter Amphictyonis was an extra-urban sanctuary in ancient Anthele in Thermopylae, dedicated to Demeter.

Trachis

HeracleaHeraclea TrachiniaKlept
Their main town was named Trachis.
It is located to the west of Thermopylae.

Ephialtes of Trachis

Ephialtesmountain path
According to the Greek legend, a traitor named Ephialtes of Trachis showed the path to the invaders.
He betrayed his homeland, in hope of receiving some kind of reward from the Persians, by showing the Persian forces a path around the allied Greek position at the pass of Thermopylae, which helped them win the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC.

Amphictyonic League

amphictyonyDelphic AmphictyonyAmphictyonic Council
In the town of Anthela, the Malians had an important temple of Demeter, an early center of the Anthelan Amphictiony.
Based on legend, the Great Amphictyonic League was founded somewhat after the Trojan War, for the protection and administration of the temple of Apollo in Delphi and temple of Demeter in Anthela, near Thermopylae.

Malian Gulf

Maliac GulfMalian
The Malian Gulf is also named after them.
The ancient strait of Thermopylae, which at the time the famous battle was fought, was delineated by Mount Kallidromo and the Malian Gulf, has now become a broad coastal plain.

Gauls

GallicGaulishGaul
In 279 BC a Gallic army led by Brennus initially engaged the Aetolians who were forced to make a tactical retreat and who were finally routed by the Thessalians and Malians by the river Spercheios.
In the second Gaulish invasion of Greece (278 BC), the Gauls, led by Brennos, suffered heavy losses while facing the Greek coalition army at Thermopylae, but helped by the Heracleans they followed the mountain path around Thermopylae to encircle the Greek army in the same way that the Persian army had done at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC, but this time defeating the whole of the Greek army.

Mycenae

MyceneansMyceneMycenaean
Thermopylae is primarily known for the battle that took place there in 480 BC, in which an outnumbered Greek force probably of seven thousand (including the famous 300 Spartans, 500 warriors from Tegea, 500 from Mantinea, 120 from Arcadian Orchomenos, 1000 from the rest of Arcadia, 200 from Phlius, 80 from Mycenae, 400 Corinthians, 400 Thebans, 1000 Phocians and the Opuntian Locrians ) held off a substantially larger force of Persians under Xerxes.
A Mycenaean contingent fought at Thermopylae and Plataea during the Persian Wars.

Third Sacred War

Sacred WarPhocian WarA ''sacred war
In 353 BC/352 BC during the Third Sacred War, fought mainly between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians.
If he could defeat the Locrians, then he was in a position to occupy the narrow pass of Thermopylae and block the union of the Thessalian and Boeotian armies, the main Amphictyonic contingents.

Philip II of Macedon

Philip IIPhilip of MacedonPhilip
In 353 BC/352 BC during the Third Sacred War, fought mainly between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians.
Philip did not attempt to advance into Central Greece because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied Thermopylae.

Locris

LocriansLocriaLokris
Thermopylae is primarily known for the battle that took place there in 480 BC, in which an outnumbered Greek force probably of seven thousand (including the famous 300 Spartans, 500 warriors from Tegea, 500 from Mantinea, 120 from Arcadian Orchomenos, 1000 from the rest of Arcadia, 200 from Phlius, 80 from Mycenae, 400 Corinthians, 400 Thebans, 1000 Phocians and the Opuntian Locrians ) held off a substantially larger force of Persians under Xerxes. Thermopylae is the only land route large enough to bear any significant traffic between Lokris and Thessaly.
Finally, to the north of Phocis was Epicnemidian Locris, situated near the pass of Thermopylae.

Samuel of Bulgaria

SamuilSamuelSamuil of Bulgaria
In 997, the Bulgarian Tsar Samuel invaded Greece and advanced as far as the Peloponnese.
They marched through Thessaly, overcame the defensive wall at Thermopylae and entered the Peloponnese, devastating everything on their way.

Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture

contemporary culturemythologizedNovelizations of the Battle of Thermopylae
He relates the story of 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians defending the Pass of Thermopylae against almost "2 million" Persians on the third day of the battle.

Doris (Greece)

Doris
The immediate "dwellers-round", presumably the first members, were the small states Aeniania, Malis and Doris.
Carphaea is probably Scarphea near Thermopylae; and by Dryope is probably meant the country once inhabited by the Dryopes.

Boeotia

ancient BoeotiaBoeotiansBoeotian League
Certainly Thessaly did have a share including the states of the Boeotian tribes who lived around Thessaly (perioikoi, "living around").
Though far from Anthela, which lay on the coast of Malis south of Thessaly in the locality of Thermopylae, Boeotia was an early member of the oldest religious Amphictyonic League (Anthelian) because her people had originally lived in Thessaly.

Anthela (Thessaly)

AntheleAnthela
In the town of Anthela, the Malians had an important temple of Demeter, an early center of the Anthelan Amphictiony.
Herodotus places the town between the small river Phoenix and Thermopylae which was a celebrated pass between Thessaly and Phocis.

Spercheios

SpercheusSpercheios RiverSpercheius
In ancient times it was called Malis which was named after the Malians, a Greek tribe that lived near present-day Lamia at the delta of the river, Spercheios in Greece. In 279 BC a Gallic army led by Brennus initially engaged the Aetolians who were forced to make a tactical retreat and who were finally routed by the Thessalians and Malians by the river Spercheios.
Its silt has slowly filled the Malian Gulf, turning Thermopylae from a narrow pass into a wide plain.

Athanasios Diakos

In 1821, a force of Greek fighters led by Athanasios Diakos made a stand near the pass to stop a force of 8,000 Turks from marching down from Thessaly to put down revolts in Roumeli and the Peloponnese.
Diakos and his band, reinforced by the fighters of Dimitrios Panourgias and Yiannis Dyovouniotis, decided to halt the Ottoman advance into Roumeli by taking defensive positions near Thermopylae.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.

Katharevousa

Katharevousa GreekGreekformerly
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.

Demotic Greek

DemoticDimotikiDhimotiki
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
Thermopylae is world-famous for the battle that took place there between the Greek forces (notably the Spartans) and the invading Persian forces, commemorated by Simonides in the famous epitaph, "Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, That here obedient to their laws we lie." In ancient times it was called Malis which was named after the Malians, a Greek tribe that lived near present-day Lamia at the delta of the river, Spercheios in Greece. Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
Thermopylae (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Θερμοπύλαι (Thermopylai), Demotic Greek (Greek): Θερμοπύλες, (Thermopyles) ; "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.