Thin-shell structure

Shell structure of the TWA Flight Center Building by Eero Saarinen, John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York
The Forest Opera, an open-air amphitheatre in Sopot, Poland, with a membrane roof.
Great Court, with a lattice thin-shell roof by Buro Happold with Norman Foster, British Museum, London

Thin-shell structures (also called plate and shell structures) are lightweight constructions using shell elements.

- Thin-shell structure

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Tensile structure

Construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending.

The world's first tensile steel shell by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895
The Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Kings Domain, Melbourne
The Olympiastadion in Munich makes extensive use of tensile roofing structures.
The world's first steel membrane roof and lattice steel shell in the Shukhov Rotunda, Russia, 1895
Simple suspended bridge working entirely in tension
Hyperbolic paraboloid
Saddle Shape
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The roof tensile structures by Frei Otto of the Olympiapark, Munich
The Millennium Dome (now The O{{sub|2}}), London, by Buro Happold and Richard Rogers
Denver International Airport terminal
The THTR-300 cable-net dry cooling tower, hyperboloid structure by Schlaich Bergermann & Partner
Killesberg Tower, Stuttgart, by Schlaich Bergermann Partner
Georgia Dome in Atlanta
Daytime computer render of Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, the highest tensile structure in the world

Tensile structures are the most common type of thin-shell structures.

Concrete shell

The Oceanografic, Valencia
The dome of the Pantheon, Rome, the oldest known concrete shell

A concrete shell, also commonly called thin shell concrete structure, is a structure composed of a relatively thin shell or shell of concrete, usually with no interior columns or exterior buttresses.

Monolithic dome

Example of a monolithic dome at the Centro de la Familia de Utah Migrant Head Start Center, Genola, Utah.
This domed government building in Baghdad, formerly a part of Saddam Hussein's regime, was hit by a 5000 lb. bomb. Apart from the hole made by the entry of the bomb, it remained structurally sound.
Monolithic "Dome of a Home" in Pensacola Beach, Florida, after Hurricane Dennis in 2005

A monolithic dome (from Greek mono- and -lithic, meaning "one stone") is a thin-shell structure cast in a one-piece form.

Geodesic dome

The Montreal Biosphère, formerly the American Pavilion of Expo 67, by R. Buckminster Fuller, on Île Sainte-Hélène, Montreal, Quebec
Spaceship Earth at Epcot
The Climatron greenhouse at Missouri Botanical Gardens, built in 1960 and designed by Thomas C. Howard of Synergetics, Inc., inspired the domes in the science fiction movie Silent Running.
Science World in Vancouver, built for Expo 86, and inspired by Buckminster Fuller's Geodesic dome
RISE, public art designed by Wolfgang Buttress located in Belfast consists of two spheres which also utilise Buckminster Fuller's Geodesic dome
Long Island Green Dome
Buckminster Fuller's own home, undergoing restoration after deterioration

A geodesic dome is a hemispherical thin-shell structure (lattice-shell) based on a geodesic polyhedron.

Hyperboloid structure

Hyperboloid structures are architectural structures designed using a hyperboloid in one sheet.

Shukhov Tower, a lattice 37-meter water tower by Vladimir Shukhov. All-Russian Exposition, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 1896
Hyperboloid lattice Adziogol Lighthouse by V.G. Shukhov near Kherson, Ukraine, 1911
The gridshell of Shukhov Tower in Moscow.
Hyperboloid tower in Kōbe, Japan.
The hyperbolic paraboloid is a doubly ruled surface so it may be used to construct a saddle roof from straight beams.
The Warszawa Ochota railway station has a hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof. Warsaw, Poland, 1962.
The Scotiabank Saddledome arena has a hyperbolic paraboloid saddle roof, Calgary, Canada, 1983.
Stackable Pringles chips are hyperbolic paraboloids.
3D-printed dual-use pen/toothbrush holder-cup. Printed on Ultimaker 2, 2015.
The Corporation Street Bridge is a horizontal doubly ruled hyperboloid structure, Manchester, England, 1999.
A hyperboloid of one sheet is a doubly ruled surface, and it may be generated by either of two families of straight lines.
:cs:Slunečná (rozhledna), (Sunny (lookout tower)) is a simpler hyperboloid structure, Velké Pavlovice, Czech Republic, 2009.
The Mae West (sculpture) is a doubly ruled surface hyperboloid structure, Munich, Germany, 2011.
Vladimir Shukhov's 1919 tower project stacks 9 hyperboloids to reach 350 metres.
Saint Louis Science Center's James S. McDonnell Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 1963.
Newcastle International Airport air traffic control tower, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 1967.
The Ciechanów water tower is a toroidal water tower tank on a doubly ruled hyperboloid structure, Ciechanów, Poland, 1972.
The THTR-300 cooling tower for a now-decommissioned nuclear reactor in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany, 1983.
The Corporation Street Bridge interior view.
The Killesberg Tower uses doubly ruled hyperboloid tensegrity cables to solidify its structure, Stuttgart, Germany, 2001.
The Canton Tower, in the Haizhu District of the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton), in Guangdong, China, 2010.
:de:Jübergturm is the first wooden hyperboloid tower structurally supported only by the outer wood framework, Hemer, Märkischer Kreis, Arnsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2010.
The Vysoká (High Lookout) Tower uses doubly ruled hyperboloid tensegrity cables to solidify its structure, Tachov, Pilsen Region, Czech Republic, 2014.
Les Essarts-le-Roi château d'eau (water tower),, Yvelines, France.
Gen Coel Building houses a public library, shopping, and community centre in Heerlerheide, Heerlen, Netherlands.
A Zuo table.

The famous Spanish engineer and architect Eduardo Torroja designed a thin-shell water tower in Fedala and the roof of Hipódromo de la Zarzuela in the form of hyperboloid of revolution.

List of inventors

List of notable inventors.

'BUILD YOUR OWN TELEVISION RECEIVER.' Science and Invention magazine cover, November 1928

Vladimir Shukhov (1853–1939), Russia – thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot

List of Russian people

List of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kievan Rus', and other predecessor states of Russia.

The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history.
Men of enlightenment at the Millennium of Russia
Statesmen at the Millennium of Russia
Military men and heroes at the Millennium of Russia
Writers and artists at the Millennium of Russia
Alexander Nevsky
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Aleksandr Menshikov
Dmitry Medvedev
Vladimir Putin
Vasily Chapaev
Mikhail Kutuzov double HSU
Fyodor Pirotsky
Schilling
Franz San Galli
Ilya Mechnikov
Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Sechenov
Nikolai Trubetzkoy
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Nikolai Gogol
Leo Tolstoy
Pavel Florensky
Aleksey Khomyakov
Vladimir Solovyov
Anton Chekhov
Alexander Ostrovsky
Anna Akhmatova
Aleksandr Blok
Vladimir Mayakovsky
Alexander Pushkin
Sergei Yesenin
Yul Brynner
Nikita Mikhalkov
Konstantin Stanislavski
Sergei Eisenstein
Eldar Ryazanov
Ladislas Starevich
Irina Baronova
Anna Pavlova
Alexander Borodin
Mikhail Glinka
Mussorgsky
Prokofiev
Mstislav Rostropovich
Feodor Chaliapin
Eduard Khil
Igor Kirillov
Ivan Urgant
Anatoly Wasserman
Oxana Fedorova
Natalia Vodianova
Natascha Ragosina
Vladimir Kramnik
Garry Kasparov
Evgeni Plushenko
Aliya Mustafina
Viacheslav Fetisov
Valeri Kharlamov
Vladislav Tretiak
Alexander Ovechkin
Andrei Arshavin
Lev Yashin
Eduard Streltsov
Maria Sharapova
Yevgeny Kafelnikov
Fedor Emelianenko
Yelena Isinbaeva
Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich

Vladimir Shukhov, polymath engineer, inventor of thermal cracking, thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell and cylindric oil depot, built Shukhov Towers and created modern theory of pipeline transport

Cairo Tower

Free-standing concrete tower in Cairo, Egypt.

Cairo tower in 2008
Cairo Tower Entrance
Cairo Tower from below
Cairo Tower
Cairo Tower at sunset

Its partially open lattice-work design is intended to evoke a pharaonic lotus plant, an iconic symbol of Ancient Egypt.

30 St Mary Axe

Commercial skyscraper in London's primary financial district, the City of London.

Seen from Leadenhall Street
30 St Mary Axe
Aerial view showing complete structure

To a design by Arup, its fully triangulated perimeter structure makes the building rigid enough without any extra reinforcements.

Finite element method in structural mechanics

Powerful technique originally developed for numerical solution of complex problems in structural mechanics, and it remains the method of choice for complex systems.

Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis

Two-dimensional elements that resist only in-plane forces by membrane action (plane stress, plane strain), and plates that resist transverse loads by transverse shear and bending action (plates and shells). They may have a variety of shapes such as flat or curved triangles and quadrilaterals. Nodes are usually placed at the element corners, and if needed for higher accuracy, additional nodes can be placed along the element edges or even within the element. The elements are positioned at the mid-surface of the actual layer thickness.