Third Crusade

crusadeThirdcrusadersCrusades3rd CrusadeRichard's crusadea new crusadeBarbarossa's crusade of 1190Crusade of 1189crusade of 1190
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187.wikipedia
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Siege of Jerusalem (1187)

fall of JerusalemSiege of Jerusalemcaptured Jerusalem
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187.
Though Jerusalem fell, it was not the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as the capital shifted first to Tyre and later to Acre after the Third Crusade.

Second Crusade

SecondCrusadersCrusade
After the failure of the Second Crusade of 1147–1149, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt.
It would ultimately have a key influence on the fall of Jerusalem and give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.

Fourth Crusade

CrusadersCrusaderFourth
The failure to re-capture Jerusalem inspired the subsequent Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, but Europeans would only regain the city—and only briefly—in the Sixth Crusade in 1229.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was launched in response to the fall of Jerusalem and with the goal of recovering it.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick BarbarossaFrederick I BarbarossaFrederick I
The elderly German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa also responded to the call to arms, leading a massive army across the Balkans and Anatolia.
Frederick died in 1190 in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade.

Audita tremendi

The new pope, Gregory VIII, in the bull Audita tremendi proclaimed that the capture of Jerusalem was punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe and called for a new crusade to the Holy Land.
Audita tremendi was a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory VIII on October 29, 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.

Guy of Lusignan

Guy de LusignanKing GuyGuy
The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, and his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king.
The siege, during which Guy's wife died, developed into a rallying point for the Third Crusade, led by Philip II of France and Richard I of England.

Curia Christi

1188, Frederick Ia council in Mainza diet in Mainz
Frederick held a diet in Mainz on 27 March 1188.
It was the occasion of the public resolution of the conflict between Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Archbishop Philip of Cologne and of the emperor's "taking of the cross", when he vowed to lead an army on the Third Crusade.

Sixth Crusade

SixthCrusade1229
The failure to re-capture Jerusalem inspired the subsequent Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, but Europeans would only regain the city—and only briefly—in the Sixth Crusade in 1229.
Instead of heading straight for the Holy Land, Frederick first sailed to Cyprus, which had been an imperial fiefdom since its capture by Richard the Lionheart on his way to Acre during the Third Crusade.

Acre, Israel

AcreAkkoAkka
It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.
It was not captured until July 1191 when the forces of the Third Crusade, led by King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France, came to King Guy's aid.

Tiberias

TabariyyaTiberias, IsraelTverya
This final act of outrage by Raynald gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the kingdom, and in 1187 he laid siege to the city of Tiberias.
However, during the Third Crusade, the Crusaders drove the Muslims out of the city and reoccupied it.

Henry of Kalden

Henry TestaHeinrich von Kalden
It was dispersed by the imperial marshal Henry of Kalden.
Henry Testa was one of the leaders of the Third Crusade and is documented serving Emperor Frederick's son and successor Henry VI, while the latter was yet just King of the Romans, in his 1190/91 campaign to the Sicilian kingdom as his right by marriage to the Norman princess Constance.

Belgrade

Belgrade, SerbiaBeogradBelgrad
The king of Hungary accompanied the army to the Byzantine border at Belgrade.
The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade, but, while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade in ruins.

Battle of Iconium (1190)

Battle of IconiumBattle of Konya (Iconium)Iconium
On 18 May 1190, the German army crushed its Turkish enemies at the Battle of Iconium, sacking the city and killing 3,000 Turkish troops.
The Battle of Iconium (sometimes referred as the Battle of Konya) took place on May 18, 1190 during the Third Crusade, in the expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to the Holy Land.

Conrad of Montferrat

ConradConrad, Marquis of MontferratConrad I
Young Frederick had to ask the assistance of his kinsman Conrad of Montferrat to lead him safely to Acre, by way of Tyre, where his father's bones were buried.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade.

Géza, son of Géza II of Hungary

GézaPrince GézaGéza of Hungary
After leaving Germany, Frederick's army was increased by the addition of a contingent of 2,000 men led by the Hungarian prince Géza, the younger brother of the king Béla III of Hungary, and Bishop Ugrin Csák.
He traveled to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade with an army of 2,000 Hungarian warriors.

Battle of Philomelion (1190)

Battle of Philomelion
A Turkish army of 10,000 men was destroyed at the Battle of Philomelion by 2,000 Crusaders, with 4,174–5,000 Turks slain.
The Battle of Philomelion (Philomelium in Latin, Akşehir in Turkish) was an Imperial victory over the Turkish forces of the Sultanate of Rûm on 7 May 1190 during the Third Crusade.

Saladin

Salah ad-DinSaladdinSalah ad-Din (Saladin)
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187.
Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem prompted the Third Crusade (1189–1192), financed in England by a special "Saladin tithe".

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Holy SepulchreChurch of the Holy Sepulchertomb
The sultan was ordered to withdraw from the lands he had conquered, to return the True Cross to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and to make satisfaction for those Christians who had been killed in his conquests, otherwise Frederick would abrogate their treaty.
It was lost to Saladin, along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the treaty established after the Third Crusade allowed Christian pilgrims to visit the site.

Pope Clement III

Clement IIIPaolo ScolariClemens III
Frederick declined and Pope Clement III even ordered Godfrey not to discuss it further.
He pushed King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France to undertake the Third Crusade.

Baldwin of Forde

Baldwin of ExeterBaldwinArchbishop Baldwin
(No such tithe had been levied in the Empire.) In Britain, Baldwin of Exeter, the archbishop of Canterbury, made a tour through Wales, convincing 3,000 men-at-arms to take up the cross, recorded in the Itinerary of Giraldus Cambrensis.
Baldwin spent some time in Wales with Gerald of Wales, preaching and raising money for the Third Crusade.

William of Tyre

WilliamGuillaume de TyrGuillelmus Tyrensis
On 25 December, Frederick and Philip met in person on the border between Ivois and Mouzon in the presence of Henry of Marcy and Archbishop William of Tyre, but he could not convince Philip to go on crusade because he was at war with England.
According to Roger of Wendover, William was present at Gisors in France in 1188 when Henry II of England and Philip II of France agreed to go on crusade: "Thereupon the king of the English first took the sign of the cross at the hands of the Archbishop of Rheims and William of Tyre, the latter of whom had been entrusted by our lord the pope with the office of legate in the affairs of the crusade in the western part of Europe."

History of the Jews in England (1066–1290)

History of the Jews in England (1066–1200)Jewish populationmassacre
The Third Crusade itself occasioned an outbreak of violence against the Jews in England.
As crusaders prepared to leave on the Third Crusade, religious fervour resulted in several anti-Jewish violences.

Richard de Camville

Richard
In April 1190, King Richard's fleet departed from Dartmouth under the command of Richard de Camville and Robert de Sablé on their way to meet their king in Marseille.
Richard de Camville (died 1191) was an English crusader knight, and one of Richard the Lionheart's senior commanders during the Third Crusade.

Jaffa

JoppaYafoJaffa, Israel
It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.
The Knight Of Jaffa is the second episode of the Doctor Who story The Crusade, set in Palestine during the Third Crusade.

Conrad of Wittelsbach

Konrad von WittelsbachConrad of MainzConrad
Shortly after the Strasbourg assembly, Frederick dispatched legates to negotiate the passage of his army through their lands: Archbishop Conrad of Mainz to Hungary, Godfrey of Wiesenbach to the Seljuk sultanate of Rûm and an unnamed ambassador to the Byzantine Empire.
In March 1188, a Court of Christ was held in Mainz at which the Third Crusade was announced.