Third gender

third sexthird-genderwariathirdX-genderintermediate sexother genderexceptionsfour gendersfourth gender
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.wikipedia
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Gender

gender issuessexgenders
It is also a social category present in societies that recognize three or more genders.
Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia; these are often referred to as third genders (and fourth genders, etc).

Gender role

gender rolesgender stereotypesgender norms
However, the state of personally identifying as, or being identified by society as, a man, a woman, or other, is usually also defined by the individual's gender identity and gender role in the particular culture in which they live.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.

Fa'afafine

fa’afafine(S.O.I.F.A.S)
The term "third gender" has also been used to describe the hijras of India who have gained legal identity, fa'afafine of Polynesia, and sworn virgins.
Fa'afafine are people who identify themselves as having a third-gender or non-binary role in Samoa, American Samoa and the Samoan diaspora.

Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
However, the state of personally identifying as, or being identified by society as, a man, a woman, or other, is usually also defined by the individual's gender identity and gender role in the particular culture in which they live.
Some societies have third gender categories.

Intersex

ambiguous genitaliaintersexualityintersex condition
Biology determines whether a human's chromosomal and anatomical sex is male, female, or one of the uncommon variations on this sexual dimorphism that can create a degree of ambiguity known as intersex.
Some of these cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities, may include intersex people in a third gender category.

Gender system

gender systemsnon-Western genderssocieties
It is also a social category present in societies that recognize three or more genders.
Due to liberal gender performance, third genders also have more prominence in Juchitán than other parts of the world.

Uranian

UrningUranismTaxonomy of Uranismus
One such term, Uranian, was used in the 19th century to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men.
Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men, and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types.

Transgender

transtransgender peopletransgenderism
With the renewed exploration of gender that feminism, the modern transgender movement and queer theory has fostered, some in the contemporary West have begun to describe themselves as a third sex again.
Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.

LGBT

LGBTQLGBTQ+lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
The concept is most likely to be embraced in the modern LGBT or queer subcultures. While mainstream western scholars – notably anthropologists who have tried to write about the South Asian hijras or the Native American "gender variant" and two-spirit people – have often sought to understand the term "third gender" solely in the language of the modern LGBT community, other scholars – especially Indigenous scholars – stress that mainstream scholars' lack of cultural understanding and context has led to widespread misrepresentation of third gender people, as well as misrepresentations of the cultures in question, including whether or not this concept actually applies to these cultures at all.
Furthermore, the initialism has seen use in India to encompass the hijra third gender identity and the related subculture.

Effeminacy

effeminateflamboyantfeminine
According to these writers, this was marked by the emergence of a subculture of effeminate males and their meeting places (molly houses), as well as a marked increase in hostility towards effeminate or homosexual males.
In other societies, by contrast, effeminate boys or men may be considered a distinct human gender (third gender), and may have a special social function, as is the case of Two-Spirits in some Native American groups.

Chibados

Chibados (or quimbandas) are third-gender men who lived most often as women.

Sexual orientation

sexualitysexual preferenceorientation
According to some scholars, the West is trying to reinterpret and redefine ancient third-gender identities to fit the Western concept of sexual orientation.
SGL also acknowledges relationships between people of like identities; for example, third gender individuals who may be oriented toward each other, and expands the discussion of sexuality beyond the original man/woman gender duality.

Non-binary gender

non-binarygenderqueergenderfluid
In recent years, some Western societies have begun to recognize non-binary or genderqueer identities.
Non-binary people may identify as having two or more genders (being bigender or trigender); having no gender (agender, nongendered, genderless, genderfree or neutrois); moving between genders or having a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid); being third gender or other-gendered (a category that includes those who do not place a name to their gender).

Heteronormativity

heteronormativehetero-normativeheterosexual privilege
A sex/gender system which recognizes only the following two social norms has been labeled "heteronormative".
Other definitions include third-gender people as transgender or conceptualize transgender people as a third gender, and infrequently the term is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers.

Bakla

feminized menbaklâeffeminate
They are often considered a third gender.

Māhū

mahuMahu wahine
To Native Hawaiians and Tahitians, Māhū is an intermediate state between man and woman, or a "person of indeterminate gender".
Māhū ('in the middle') in Kanaka Maoli (Hawaiian) and Maohi (Tahitian) cultures are third gender persons with traditional spiritual and social roles within the culture, similar to Tongan fakaleiti and Samoan fa'afafine, Kāne (men) who have sexual relationships with men are Aikāne.

Morgan Holmes

In a study of arguments that intersex people fit into a third gender classification, intersex scholar Morgan Holmes argues that much analysis of a third sex or third gender is simplistic:
Holmes also problematizes this link, and in particular concepts of intersex as a third sex.

Two-spirit

berdachetwo spirittwo-spirited
While mainstream western scholars – notably anthropologists who have tried to write about the South Asian hijras or the Native American "gender variant" and two-spirit people – have often sought to understand the term "third gender" solely in the language of the modern LGBT community, other scholars – especially Indigenous scholars – stress that mainstream scholars' lack of cultural understanding and context has led to widespread misrepresentation of third gender people, as well as misrepresentations of the cultures in question, including whether or not this concept actually applies to these cultures at all. Two-Spirit is a modern umbrella term created at an Indigenous lesbian and gay conference in 1990 with the primary intent of replacing the offensive term, "berdache", which had been, and in some quarters still is, the term used for gay and gender-variant Indigenous people by non-Native anthropologists.
Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some Indigenous North Americans to describe Native people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial role in their cultures.

Lesbian

lesbianismlesbiansSapphic
Two-Spirit is a modern umbrella term created at an Indigenous lesbian and gay conference in 1990 with the primary intent of replacing the offensive term, "berdache", which had been, and in some quarters still is, the term used for gay and gender-variant Indigenous people by non-Native anthropologists.
These were members of the "third sex" who rejected the roles of women to be subservient, feminine, and domestic.

Femminiello

Femminielli
It may be hard to define this term within modern Western notions of "gay men" versus "trans women" since both these categories overlap to a degree in the case of femminielli (see Third gender).

Muxe

In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (also spelled muxhe; ) is a person who is assigned male at birth, but who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise associated with women; they may be seen as a third gender.

Gender dysphoria

gender identity disordergender confusiongender dysphoric
A clinical review suggests that between 8.5–20% of persons with intersex conditions may experience gender dysphoria, while sociological research in Australia, a country with a third 'X' sex classification, shows that 19% of people born with atypical sex characteristics selected an "X" or "other" option, while 52% are women, 23% men and 6% unsure.
Some cultures have three defined genders: man, woman, and effeminate man.

Sex and gender distinction

sex or gendersex and genderdistinct
A sex and gender distinction is not universal, and Peletz's description of gender as designating biological variations as well as cultural practices is not unique.
Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.

Norrie May-Welby

NorrieNorrie May Welby
Some years after Alex MacFarlane, Australian Norrie May-Welby was recognized as having unspecified status.
* Third gender in Australia

Albanian sworn virgins

sworn virginssworn virginBalkan sworn virgins
The term "third gender" has also been used to describe the hijras of India who have gained legal identity, fa'afafine of Polynesia, and sworn virgins.