Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Thirteenth Amendment13th AmendmentThirteenth13thThirteenth Amendment to the Constitution13th Amendment to the U.S. ConstitutionThirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution13th Amendment to the United States Constitutionabolition of slaveryEmancipation
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.wikipedia
583 Related Articles

Slavery in the United States

slaveryslavesslave
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from the birth of the nation in 1776 until passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865.

Penal labor in the United States

as punishment for a crimeprison laborconvict laborers
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Penal labor in the United States, including a form of slavery or involuntary servitude, is explicitly allowed by the 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Reconstruction Amendments

Constitutional Amendments13th, 14th and 15th amendmentsAmendments
It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.

American Civil War

Civil WarU.S. Civil WarUnited States Civil War
It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. The Southern states seceded from the Union in the months following Lincoln's election, forming the Confederate States of America, and beginning the American Civil War.
The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and four million black slaves were freed.

Slave states and free states

slave statefree stateslave states
Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in December of 1865, abolished slavery throughout the United States.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.
He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Emancipation Proclamation

emancipationemancipatedabolition
Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.
The remaining slaves, those in the areas not in revolt, were freed by state action, or by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in December 1865.

Involuntary servitude

involuntary domestic servitudeinvoluntaryservitude
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution makes involuntary servitude illegal under any U.S. jurisdiction whether at the hands of the government or in the private sphere, except as punishment for a crime: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors.
In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery.

William Lloyd Garrison

GarrisonGarrisonianWilliam Garrison
An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South.
He is best known for his widely-read abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded with Isaac Knapp in 1831 and published in Boston until slavery in the United States was abolished by Constitutional amendment in 1865.

Fugitive Slave Clause

Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3Article IV, Section 2 of the U.S. ConstitutionFugitive Slave Clause of the Constitution
Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, "No person held to Service or Labour in one State" would be freed by escaping to another.
The passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery except as a punishment for criminal acts, made the clause mostly irrelevant.

Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fifteenth Amendment15th AmendmentFifteenth
The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors.
In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery.

Abolitionism in the United States

abolitionistabolitionistsabolitionism
An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South.
The United States criminalized the international slave trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War, except as a punishment for crime for which the person has been "duly convicted".

Dred Scott v. Sandford

Dred Scott decisionDred ScottDred Scott case
Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) for treating slaves as property.
After the Union's victory in 1865, the Court's rulings in Dred Scott were superseded by direct amendments to the U.S. Constitution: the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, and the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed citizenship for "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof".

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
The Southern states seceded from the Union in the months following Lincoln's election, forming the Confederate States of America, and beginning the American Civil War.
After the war, Confederate states were readmitted to the Union during the Reconstruction era, after each ratified the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which outlawed slavery.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.
The Thirteenth (1865), Fourteenth (1868), and Fifteenth Amendments (1870) gave Congress authority to enact legislation to enforce rights of African Americans, including voting rights, due process, and equal protection under the law.

John B. Henderson

John Brooks HendersonHendersonJ.B. Henderson
On January 11, 1864, Senator John B. Henderson of Missouri submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.
John Brooks Henderson (November 16, 1826 – April 12, 1913) was a United States Senator from Missouri and a co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Lyman Trumbull

Trumbull
The Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, became involved in merging different proposals for an amendment.
Lyman Trumbull (October 12, 1813 – June 25, 1896) was a United States Senator from Illinois and the co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The Thirteenth Amendment (1865) abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime, and authorized Congress to enforce abolition.

Black Codes (United States)

Black CodesBlack CodeBlack Laws
Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, and selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor, particularly in the South.
Mississippi rejected the Thirteenth Amendment on December 5, 1865.

James Mitchell Ashley

James M. AshleyJames AshleyAshley, James Mitchell
On December 14, 1863, a bill proposing such an amendment was introduced by Representative James Mitchell Ashley of Ohio.
A member of the Republican Party, Ashley served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Ohio during the American Civil War, where he became a leader of the Radical Republicans and pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, ending slavery in the United States.

Reverdy Johnson

Reverdy Johnson (born)
The Senate passed the amendment on April 8, 1864, by a vote of 38 to 6; two Democrats, Reverdy Johnson of Maryland and James Nesmith of Oregon voted "aye."
At first he opposed wartime efforts to abolish slavery until 1864, and in 1865 supported the 13th Amendment banning slavery.

Border states (American Civil War)

border statesborder stateborder slave states
However, it did not affect the status of slaves in the border states that had remained loyal to the Union.
However, Delaware and Kentucky did not abolish slavery until December 1865, when the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified.

Schuyler Colfax

ColfaxSchuyler M. Colfax17th Vice President of the United States
In mid-January 1865, Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax estimated the amendment to be five votes short of passage.
During his first term as speaker he led the effort to pass what would become the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery.

William H. Seward

William SewardWilliam Henry SewardSeward
On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption.
Seward advised Johnson to state, in his first annual message to Congress, that southern states meet three conditions for readmission to the Union: repeal of secession, repudiation of the war debt incurred by the rebel governments, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.