Thirty Years' War

30 Years War30 Years' WarThirty Years WarBohemian RevoltwarImperialist forcesThirty Years163530-Years WarDanish intervention in the Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.wikipedia
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Prague

PrahaPrague, Czech RepublicPrag
Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague.
The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era.

Counter-Reformation

counter reformationcounterreformationCatholic Reformation
The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent (1545–1563); the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571), both occurring during the pontificate of Pius V; the construction of the Gregorian observatory, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the Jesuit China mission of Matteo Ricci under Pope Gregory XIII; the French Wars of Religion; the Long Turkish War and the execution of Giordano Bruno in 1600, under Pope Clement VIII; the birth of the Lyncean Academy of the Papal States, of which the main figure was Galileo Galilei (later put on trial); the final phases of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) during the pontificates of Urban VIII and Innocent X; and the formation of the last Holy League by Innocent XI during the Great Turkish War.

Bohemian Revolt

Bohemia and MoraviaBohemian periodBohemians rebelled
These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, and triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the then relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria (and also with the Holy Roman Empire) to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war.
The Bohemian Revolt (Böhmischer Aufstand; České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.

Battle of White Mountain

White Mountainbattle of Pragueaftermath of the Battle of white mountain
The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after.
The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.

French–Habsburg rivalry

rivalryancient rivalryHabsburg rival
These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
The subsequent rivalry became a cause for several major wars, including the Italian Wars 1494–1559; the Thirty Years' War 1618–1648; the Nine Years' War 1688–1697; the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, and the Napoleonic Wars.

Sweden

🇸🇪SwedishSWE
Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been simply the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe.
When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and eventually the Swedish Empire was formed.

Eighty Years' War

Dutch War of IndependenceWar of IndependenceDutch Revolt
Habsburg Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic (which was still a part of the Holy Roman Empire), intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria.
Hostilities broke out again around 1619, as part of the broader Thirty Years' War.

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand IIEmperor Ferdinand IIFerdinand
The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The Thirty Years' War had begun in 1618 as a result of inadequacies of his predecessors Rudolf II and Matthias.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.
These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, with the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies on one side, battling the Protestant powers (Sweden, Denmark, Dutch, and Holy Roman principalities) allied with France (Catholic but anti-Habsburg).

Catholic League (German)

Catholic LeagueLeaguistCatholic Leaguist
Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor.
Notwithstanding the league's founding, as had the founding of the Protestant Union, it further exacerbated long standing tensions between the Protestant reformers and the adherents of the Catholic Church which thereafter began to get worse with ever more frequent episodes of civil disobedience, repression, and retaliation that would eventually ignite into the first phase of the Thirty Years' War roughly a decade later with the act of rebellion and calculated insult known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618.

Pan-Germanism

pan-Germanpan-Germanistpan-Germanic
In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.
Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation, when the Holy Roman Empire was shattered into a patchwork of states following the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia.

Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria

Maximilian IMaximilian I of BavariaMaximilian of Bavaria
This prompted foreign intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics.
His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War during which he obtained the title of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire at the 1623 Diet of Regensburg.

Dutch Golden Age

Golden AgeDutch styleGolden Age of Dutch science and technology
The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; it was removed from the Holy Roman Empire and was able to end its revolt against Spain in 1648 and subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world's foremost economic, colonial, and naval powers.
The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Eighty Years' War between the Dutch Republic and Spain and the Thirty Years' War between other European superpowers, brought the Dutch Republic formal recognition and independence from the Spanish crown.

Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

Rudolf IIRudolph IIEmperor Rudolf II
Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague.
Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and an intellectual devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed what would be called the scientific revolution.

Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDuke of Bavaria
In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate and the Landgraviate of Hesse.
The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years' War in 1623.

Old Town Square execution

1621 execution27 of them were executed in the Old Town Square in Prageexecuted
The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after.
After the Protestant uprising of the Bohemian estates against the Catholic Habsburgs resulted in Thirty Years' War and a final defeat in the Battle of White Mountain, Habsburgs took their revenge and executed some of the key leaders of the uprising, although with some others the punishment was reduced and some were pardoned.

War

warfarearmed conflictconflict
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
For instance, the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) had about the same number of casualties per capita as World War I, although it was higher during World War II (WWII).

Alsace

AlsatianAlsatiansAlsacian
Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing it along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg, and on to the Dutch Republic.
For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was heavily contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences.

Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War

1830 invasion of the Holy Roman Empire by the Swedish Kingintervene in the Thirty Years' Warintervened
The war can be divided into four major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention, and the French intervention.
The Swedish invasion of the Holy Roman Empire, or the Swedish Intervention in the Thirty Years' War is a historically accepted division of the Thirty Years' War.

James VI and I

James IJames VIKing James I
They banded together and formed the Protestant Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the Scottish-born daughter of King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland.
He was strongly committed to a peace policy, and tried to avoid involvement in religious wars, especially the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) that devastated much of Central Europe.

Electoral Palatinate

Palatinatethe PalatinatePalatine
In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate and the Landgraviate of Hesse. They banded together and formed the Protestant Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the Scottish-born daughter of King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland.
Their climax and decline is marked by the rule of Elector Palatine Frederick V, whose coronation as King of Bohemia in 1619 sparked the Thirty Years' War.

Treaty of Münster

Treaties of Münster
The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.
Treaty of Münster refers to two treaties signed in 1648, and forming part of the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War:

Lutheranism

LutheranLutheransLutheran Church
The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer (1526), ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, and establishing that:
Near the end of the Thirty Years' War, the compromising spirit seen in Philip Melanchthon rose up again in Helmstedt School and especially in theology of Georgius Calixtus, causing the syncretistic controversy.

Valtellina

ValtellineValtellina disputeVeltlin
Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing it along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg, and on to the Dutch Republic.
In past centuries it was a key alpine pass between northern Italy and Germany and control of the Valtellina was much sought after, particularly during the Thirty Years' War.

Philip III of Spain

Philip IIIPhilip IIKing Philip III
With the Oñate treaty, Philip III of Spain agreed to this succession.
Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch (1609–1621) and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through an (initially) extremely successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.