Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years WarThirty Years’ War30 Years WarThirty Year WarThirty Year's War30 Years' WarBohemian RevoltThe Thirty Years WarThirty Yearswar
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.wikipedia
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Prague

Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague.
The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia between the World Wars and the post-war Communist era.

Battle of White Mountain

White MountainBílá Horabattle of Prague
The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after.
The Battle of White Mountain (Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.

Counter-Reformation

Counter ReformationCounterreformationCatholic Reformation
The war was preceded by the election of the new Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
Key events of the period include: the Council of Trent (1545–1563); the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571), both occurring during the pontificate of Pius V; the construction of the Gregorian observatory, the founding of the Gregorian University, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the Jesuit China mission of Matteo Ricci under Pope Gregory XIII; the French Wars of Religion; the Long Turkish War and the execution of Giordano Bruno in 1600, under Pope Clement VIII; the birth of the Lyncean Academy of the Papal States, of which the main figure was Galileo Galilei (later put on trial); the final phases of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) during the pontificates of Urban VIII and Innocent X; and the formation of the last Holy League by Innocent XI during the Great Turkish War.

Bohemian Revolt

Bohemia and MoraviaBohemian periodBohemians rebelled
These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, and triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the then relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria (and also within the Holy Roman Empire) to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II.
The Bohemian Revolt (Böhmischer Aufstand; České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.

French–Habsburg rivalry

rivalryFrance–Habsburg rivalryFrance-Habsburg rivalry
These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
The subsequent rivalry became a cause for several major wars, including the Italian Wars 1494–1559; the Thirty Years' War 1618–1648; the Nine Years' War 1688–1697; the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, and the Napoleonic Wars.

Eighty Years' War

Eighty Years WarDutch War of IndependenceWar of Independence
Habsburg Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic (which was de facto independent since 1581 but de jure still a part of the Holy Roman Empire), intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria.
Hostilities broke out again around 1619, as part of the broader Thirty Years' War.

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand IIEmperor Ferdinand IIFerdinand
The war was preceded by the election of the new Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The Thirty Years' War had begun in 1618 as a result of inadequacies of his predecessors Rudolf II and Matthias.

Swedish Empire

SwedenSwedishKingdom of Sweden
Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been simply the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe.
After the victories in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden reached the climax of the great-power era during the Second Northern War, when its primary adversary, Denmark, was neutralized by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, largely ending the European wars of religion, including the Thirty Years' War.

Catholic League (German)

Catholic LeagueLeaguistCatholic Leaguist
Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor.
Notwithstanding the league's founding, as had the founding of the Protestant Union, it further exacerbated long standing tensions between the Protestant reformers and the adherents of the Catholic Church which thereafter began to get worse with ever more frequent episodes of civil disobedience, repression, and retaliation that would eventually ignite into the first phase of the Thirty Years' War roughly a decade later with the act of rebellion and calculated insult known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618.

Pan-Germanism

pan-GermanGreater GermanyPan-Germanist
One of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire (although the German Empire excluded the German-speaking parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation, when the Holy Roman Empire was shattered into a patchwork of states following the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia.

Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria

Maximilian IMaximilian I of BavariaMaximilian of Bavaria
This prompted foreign intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics.
His reign was marked by the Thirty Years' War during which he obtained the title of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire at the 1623 Diet of Regensburg.

Dutch Golden Age

Golden AgeDutch styleGolden Age of Dutch science and technology
It subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world's foremost economic, colonial, and naval powers.
The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Eighty Years' War between the Dutch Republic and Spain and the Thirty Years' War between other European superpowers, brought the Dutch Republic formal recognition and independence from the Spanish crown.

Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

Rudolf IIRudolph IIEmperor Rudolf II
Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague.
Rudolf's legacy has traditionally been viewed in three ways: an ineffectual ruler whose mistakes led directly to the Thirty Years' War; a great and influential patron of Northern Mannerist art; and an intellectual devotee of occult arts and learning which helped seed what would be called the scientific revolution.

Duchy of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianDukes of Bavaria
In addition to Habsburg lands, the Holy Roman Empire contained several regional powers, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate and the Landgraviate of Hesse.
The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years' War in 1623.

War

warfarearmed conflictconflict
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
For instance, the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) had about the same number of casualties per capita as World War I, although it was higher during World War II (WWII).

Old Town Square execution

1621 execution27 of them were executed in the Old Town Square in Prageexecuted
The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after.
After the Prague Defenestration in 1618 and subsequent Protestant uprising of the Bohemian estates against the Catholic Habsburgs resulted in Thirty Years' War and a final defeat in the Battle of White Mountain, Habsburgs took their revenge and executed some of the key leaders of the uprising, although with some others the punishment was reduced and some were pardoned.

Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War

1830 invasion of the Holy Roman Empire by the Swedish Kingintervene in the Thirty Years' Warintervened
The war can be divided into four major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention, and the French intervention.
The Swedish invasion of the Holy Roman Empire, or the Swedish Intervention in the Thirty Years' War is a historically accepted division of the Thirty Years' War.

Alsace

AlsatianAlsatiansElsass
Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing it along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg, and on to the Dutch Republic.
For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was heavily contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences.

Black Forest

SchwarzwaldThe Black ForestBlack Forest Mountains
The deadly clashes ravaged Europe; 20 percent of the total population of Germany died during the conflict and there were losses up to 50 percent in a corridor between Pomerania and the Black Forest.
After the Plague, which afflicted the valley in 1516, the German Peasants' War (1524–26) and the Thirty Years' War, mining in the region declined until just a few pits remained.

James VI and I

James IJames VIJames I of England
They banded together and formed the Protestant Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the Scottish-born daughter of King James VI of Scotland and I of England and Ireland.
He was strongly committed to a peace policy, and tried to avoid involvement in religious wars, especially the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) that devastated much of Central Europe.

Treaty of Münster

Treaties of Münster
The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.
Treaty of Münster refers to two treaties signed in 1648, and forming part of the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War:

Lutheranism

LutheranEvangelical LutheranLutherans
Near the end of the Thirty Years' War, the compromising spirit seen in Philip Melanchthon rose up again in Helmstedt School and especially in theology of Georgius Calixtus, causing the syncretistic controversy.

Valtellina

ValtellineValmalencoVeltlin
Spinola's preferred route would take him through the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Milan, the Val Telline, around hostile Switzerland bypassing it along the north shore of Lake Constance, then through Alsace, the Archbishopric of Strasbourg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, and then finally through the Archbishopric of Trier, Jülich and Berg, and on to the Dutch Republic.
In past centuries it was a key alpine pass between northern Italy and Germany and control of the Valtellina was much sought after, particularly during the Thirty Years' War.

Philip III of Spain

Philip IIIPhilip II of PortugalPhilip II
With the Oñate treaty, Philip III of Spain agreed to this succession.
Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch (1609–1621) and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through an (initially) extremely successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.