Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas MalthusMalthusRobert MalthusMalthusianT.R. MalthusMalthus, Thomas RobertT. R. MalthusCleric Thomas Robert MalthusMalthus, ThomasMalthusian controversy
Thomas Robert Malthus (13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.wikipedia
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An Essay on the Principle of Population

Essay on the Principle of PopulationAn Essay on the Principles of PopulationIron law of population
In his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level.
The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

Political economy

political economistpolitical economicspolitical economists
Thomas Robert Malthus (13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. During the 1820s there took place a setpiece intellectual discussion among the exponents of political economy, often called the "Malthus–Ricardo debate" after its leading figures, Malthus and theorist of free trade David Ricardo, both of whom had written books with the title Principles of Political Economy.
The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).

Malthusian trap

its statistical argumentMalthusian population trapMalthusian pressure
In other words, humans had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the "Malthusian trap" or the "Malthusian spectre".
It is named for Thomas Robert Malthus, who suggested that while technological advances could increase a society's supply of resources, such as food, and thereby improve the standard of living, the resource abundance would enable population growth, which would eventually bring the per capita supply of resources back to its original level.

Malthusian catastrophe

MalthusianMalthusian crisisMalthusian theory
Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship, want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe.
In 1798, Thomas Malthus wrote:

Alfred Russel Wallace

WallaceAlfred WallaceA. R. Wallace
Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
Wallace spent many hours at the library in Leicester: he read An Essay on the Principle of Population by Thomas Robert Malthus, and one evening he met the entomologist Henry Bates.

Demography

demographicdemographicsdemographer
Thomas Robert Malthus (13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
His work influenced Thomas Robert Malthus, who, writing at the end of the 18th century, feared that, if unchecked, population growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever-increasing famine and poverty (see Malthusian catastrophe).

Corn Laws

Corn Lawrepeal of the Corn LawsImportation Act 1815
He supported taxes on grain imports (the Corn Laws).
The political economist Thomas Malthus believed this to be a fair price, and that it would be dangerous for Britain to rely on imported corn because lower prices would reduce labourers' wages, and manufacturers would lose out due to the decrease of purchasing power of landlords and farmers.

Jesus College, Cambridge

Jesus CollegeJesusJesus College, Cambridge University
Malthus entered Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784.
Notable alumni include Thomas Cranmer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas Robert Malthus, Lord Reid, Lord Toulson, Sir Rupert Jackson, Sir David Hare, Sir Roger Scruton, Nick Hornby, and the members of the band Clean Bandit.

Population growth

population growth rategrowth ratehuman population growth
He saw population growth as being inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man".
For further information regarding Human Population Growth, see the works of Dr(s) Al Bartlett, Hans Rosling, John Lovelock, Paul Ehrlich as well as Cleric Thomas Robert Malthus.

David Ricardo

RicardoRicardianDavid Ricardo,MP
During the 1820s there took place a setpiece intellectual discussion among the exponents of political economy, often called the "Malthus–Ricardo debate" after its leading figures, Malthus and theorist of free trade David Ricardo, both of whom had written books with the title Principles of Political Economy.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
Continuing his research in London, Darwin's wide reading now included the sixth edition of Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population, and on 28 September 1838 he noted its assertion that human "population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio", a geometric progression so that population soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe.

Surrey

County of SurreySurrey, EnglandSRY
The sixth child of Henrietta Catherine (Graham) and Daniel Malthus, Robert Malthus grew up in The Rookery, a country house in Westcott, near Dorking in Surrey.

Wrangler (University of Cambridge)

wranglerSecond Wranglersenior optime
While there he took prizes in English declamation, Latin and Greek, and graduated with honours, Ninth Wrangler in mathematics.
Bragg was third, Hardy was fourth, Sedgwick fifth, Malthus was ninth, Bertrand Russell was seventh, Keynes was 12th, and some fared even worse: Klaus Roth was not even a wrangler.

Say's law

law of marketssupply creates its demandsupply creates its own demand
The debate developed over the economic concept of a general glut, and the possibility of failure of Say's Law.
Thomas Malthus and John Stuart Mill questioned the doctrine that general gluts cannot occur.

Political Economy Club

Malthus was a founding member of the Political Economy Club in 1821; there John Cazenove tended to be his ally, against Ricardo and Mill.
David Ricardo, James Mill, Thomas Malthus (the only one holding an academic post at the time), and Robert Torrens were among the original luminaries.

Famine

faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship, want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease, a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe.
Even though the theories of Thomas Malthus would predict that famines reduce the size of the population commensurate with available food resources, in fact even the most severe famines have rarely dented population growth for more than a few years.

William Otter

Caroline Charlotte OtterOtter
In 1799 Malthus made a European tour with William Otter, a close college friend, travelling part of the way with Edward Daniel Clarke and John Marten Cripps, visiting Germany, Scandinavia and Russia.

Richard Jones (economist)

Richard JonesRev. Richard Jones
On the other hand, Malthus did have supporters: Thomas Chalmers, some of the Oriel Noetics, Richard Jones and William Whewell from Cambridge.
Richard Jones (1790, in Tunbridge Wells – 20 January 1855, in Hertford Heath) was an English economist who criticised the theoretical views of David Ricardo and T. R. Malthus on economic rent and population.

John Cazenove

Malthus was a founding member of the Political Economy Club in 1821; there John Cazenove tended to be his ally, against Ricardo and Mill.
He is thought by Patricia James to have met Robert Malthus through Charles Webb Le Bas.

Royal Statistical Society

Statistical SocietyFellow of the Royal Statistical SocietyStatistical Society of London
He was also one of the first fellows of the Statistical Society, founded in March 1834.
Instrumental in founding the LSS were Richard Jones, Charles Babbage, Adolphe Quetelet, William Whewell, and Thomas Malthus.

Goods and services

goods or servicesgood or servicegoods, services,
For example, Jean-Baptiste Say used a definition of production based on goods and services and so queried the restriction of Malthus to "goods" alone.
This emphasis on material production was adapted by David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus and John Stuart Mill, and influenced later Marxian economics.

Webbed toes

webbed feetwebbedwebbing
He was bullied from an early age because of his syndactyly, or webbed feet.

East India Company College

East India CollegeHaileyburyHaileybury College
In 1805 Malthus became Professor of History and Political Economy at the East India Company College in Hertfordshire.

Principles of Political Economy (Malthus)

Principles of Political EconomyPrinciples of Political Economy'' (Malthus)
In 1820 Malthus published Principles of Political Economy.
Principles of Political Economy Considered with a View to their Applications, simply referred to as Principles of Political Economy, was written by nineteenth century British political economist Thomas Malthus in 1820.

Warrington Academy

Academyacademy at Warringtonone in Warrington
The young Malthus received his education at home in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, and then at the Warrington Academy from 1782.