Three Bishoprics

Trois-ÉvêchésTrois Evechesprince-bishopricsTrois Evêchés
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.wikipedia
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Early modern France

FranceKingdom of FranceFrench
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
In the mid 15th century, France was significantly smaller than it is today, and numerous border provinces (such as Roussillon, Cerdagne, Calais, Béarn, Navarre, County of Foix, Flanders, Artois, Lorraine, Alsace, Trois-Évêchés, Franche-Comté, Savoy, Bresse, Bugey, Gex, Nice, Provence, Corsica and Brittany) were autonomous or foreign-held (as by the Kingdom of England); there were also foreign enclaves, like the Comtat Venaissin.

Bishopric of Metz

MetzBishop of MetzBishops opf Metz
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
It was one of the Three Bishoprics that were annexed by France in 1552.

Henry II of France

Henry IIHenri IIKing Henry II
The three dioceses were Prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire until they were seized by King Henry II of France between April and June 1552.
The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which put an end to the Italian Wars, had mixed results: France renounced its claims to territories in Italy, but gained certain other territories, including the Pale of Calais and the Three Bishoprics.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Toul

Bishop of ToulToulDiocese of Toul
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
It then was part of the province of the Three Bishoprics.

Bishopric of Verdun

Bishop of VerdunVerdunBishops of Verdun
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
It then was a part of the province of the Three Bishoprics.

Duchy of Lorraine

LorraineDuchy of Upper LorraineUpper Lorraine
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
At that time, several territories had already split off, such as the County of Luxembourg, the Electorate of Trier, the County of Bar and the "Three Bishoprics" of Verdun, Metz and Toul.

Prince-bishop

prince-bishopricPrince BishopPrince-Archbishop
The three dioceses were Prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire until they were seized by King Henry II of France between April and June 1552.

Provinces of France

former provinceprovinceprovince of France
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.

Treaty of Chambord

new support to the Lutheran cause
On 15 January 1552, he signed the Treaty of Chambord with Maurice of Saxony and his Protestant allies, whereby the French conquests were legitimised ahead of time.
Based on the terms of the treaty, Maurice ceded the vicariate over the Three Bishoprics of Toul, Verdun, and Metz to France.

Toul

Toul SectorToul, FranceToul, Lorraine
The princes acknowledged the king's lordship as "Vicar of the Empire" over the Imperial cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, as well as Cambrai "and other towns of the Empire that do not speak German".
It then was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics.

Metz

Metz, FranceDivodurumBishop of Metz
The princes acknowledged the king's lordship as "Vicar of the Empire" over the Imperial cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, as well as Cambrai "and other towns of the Empire that do not speak German".
Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town.

Italian War of 1551–1559

Peace of Cateau-CambrésisItalian War of 1551–59Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
In autumn Henry declared war against Charles V and prepared to march against the Empire up to the Rhine River.
England and the Habsburgs, in exchange, ended their opposition to French occupation of the Pale of Calais, the Three Bishoprics, and a number of fortresses.

Verdun

Verdun, FranceVerdun-sur-MeuseRegret
The princes acknowledged the king's lordship as "Vicar of the Empire" over the Imperial cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, as well as Cambrai "and other towns of the Empire that do not speak German".
The Bishopric of Verdun formed together with Tull (Toul) and Metz the Three Bishoprics, which were annexed by France in 1552 (recognized in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia).

Free imperial city

Imperial Cityfree imperial citiesImperial Free City
The princes acknowledged the king's lordship as "Vicar of the Empire" over the Imperial cities of Metz, Toul and Verdun, as well as Cambrai "and other towns of the Empire that do not speak German".
Henry II of France seized the Imperial Cities connected to the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Verdun and Toul.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIVKing Louis XIVKing Louis XIV of France
When King Louis XIV acceded to the throne in 1643, he confirmed the privileges of the Metz, Toul and Verdun citizens as his "good and faithful subjects".
Austria, ruled by the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, ceded all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace to France and acknowledged her de facto sovereignty over the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Verdun, and Toul.

Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine

Cardinal of LorraineCharles of GuiseCardinal Charles of Lorraine
Backed by Duke Francis of Guise and his brother Cardinal Charles of Lorraine, King Henry II of France upon his agreement with the Protestant princes had started his Voyage d’Allemagne "for the sake of German liberties".
One of them, "La Guerre Cardinale" (1565), accuses him of seeking to restore to the Holy Roman Empire the three former prince-bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, in Lorraine, which had been conquered by Henry II.

Siege of Metz (1552)

Siege of MetzMetzdefense of Metz
As from the emperor's perspective, Elector Maurice and his allies had no right to legally dispose of Imperial territory, Charles V started a campaign against the French in order to reconquer the occupied dioceses culminating in the Siege of Metz from 19 October 1552 to 2 January 1553.
The so-called Augsburg Interim came to an end when Protestant princes of the Schmalkaldic League approached Henry II of France and concluded the Treaty of Chambord, giving the free cities of Toul, Verdun, and Metz (the 'Three Bishoprics') to the Kingdom of France.

Parlement

Parlement of ParisParlement de ParisParliament of Paris
Initiated by Cardinal Richelieu, the Trois-Évêchés received a certain autonomy with a provincial parlement installed in 1633 in Metz, dominated by the city's patriciate.

Battle of Renty

The expedition ultimately failed, when the Imperial troops were defeated by the French forces under Duke Francis of Guise in the 1554 Battle of Renty.
The French repelled Charles' 1554 invasion, the emperor abdicated two years later and King Henry II ultimately retained the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun.

Diocese

bishopricarchdiocesediocesan
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The three dioceses were Prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire until they were seized by King Henry II of France between April and June 1552.

Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years WarThirty Years’ War30 Years War
At the end of the Thirty Years' War, they were officially ceded to France by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
At the end of the Thirty Years' War, they were officially ceded to France by the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.

House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
In the course of the rebellion against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, several Protestant Imperial princes met at Lochau Castle near Torgau in May 1551.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VEmperor Charles VCharles I of Spain
In the course of the rebellion against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, several Protestant Imperial princes met at Lochau Castle near Torgau in May 1551.