Three generations of human rights

second-generation rightshuman dimensionthree generations-generation2nd generation rights of Manfirst-generation rightsRight to Worksecond generation" rightssecond- and third generation rightsthird generation rights
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.wikipedia
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Civil and political rights

civil rightscivil rights activistpolitical rights
They are fundamentally civil and political in nature: They serve negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state. The World Conference on Human Rights opposed the distinction between civil and political rights (negative rights) and economic, social and cultural rights (positive rights) that resulted in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action proclaiming that "all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated".
The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights.

Negative and positive rights

positive rightsnegative rightsnegative right
They are fundamentally civil and political in nature: They serve negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state.
In the "three generations" account of human rights, negative rights are often associated with the first generation of rights, while positive rights are associated with the second and third generations.

Human rights

human righthuman rights violationshuman rights abuses
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.
Another categorization, offered by Karel Vasak, is that there are three generations of human rights: first-generation civil and political rights (right to life and political participation), second-generation economic, social and cultural rights (right to subsistence) and third-generation solidarity rights (right to peace, right to clean environment).

International Institute of Human Rights

Institute for Human RightsInstitute of Human Rights
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

Karel Vasak

Karel Vašák
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Charter of Fundamental RightsEU Charter of Fundamental RightsCFREU
The three generations are reflected in some of the rubrics of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

Economic, social and cultural rights

social rightseconomic rightseconomic, social, and cultural rights
They are fundamentally economic, social, and cultural in nature. The World Conference on Human Rights opposed the distinction between civil and political rights (negative rights) and economic, social and cultural rights (positive rights) that resulted in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action proclaiming that "all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated".
According to Karel Vasak's theory of three generations of human rights, economic, social and cultural rights are considered second-generation rights, while civil and political rights, such as freedom of speech, right to a fair trial, and the right to vote, are considered first-generation rights.

Second Bill of Rights

Economic Bill of Rights1941 State of the Union1944 State of the Union Address
In the United States of America, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a Second Bill of Rights, covering much the same grounds, during his State of the Union Address on January 11, 1944.
Later in the 1970s, Czech jurist Karel Vasak would categorize these as the "second generation" rights in his theory of three generations of human rights.

European Social Charter

European Committee of Social RightsEuropean Social Charter 1961Social Charter
Today, many nations, states, or groups of nations have developed legally binding declarations guaranteeing comprehensive sets of human rights, e.g. the European Social Charter.

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ RightsAfrican CharterAfrican Charter on Human and People's Rights
The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights ensures many of those: the right to self-determination, right to development, right to natural resources and right to satisfactory environment.
In addition to recognising the individual rights mentioned above the Charter also recognises collective or group rights, or peoples' rights and third-generation human rights.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

OSCEOrganization for Security and Cooperation in EuropeOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
An example is the High Commissioner on National Minorities of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
The commitments made by OSCE participating States in the human dimension aim to ensure full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; to abide by the rule of law; to promote the principles of democracy by building, strengthening and protecting democratic institutions; and to promote tolerance throughout the OSCE region.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Rio Declaration1992 Rio Declarationcommitted
Third-generation human rights are those rights that go beyond the mere civil and social, as expressed in many progressive documents of international law, including the 1972 Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and other pieces of generally aspirational "soft law".
* Three generations of human rights

Human security

personal safetyGlobal Health and Human Securityhealth security

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

Vienna Declaration
The World Conference on Human Rights opposed the distinction between civil and political rights (negative rights) and economic, social and cultural rights (positive rights) that resulted in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action proclaiming that "all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated".

Czechs

CzechCzech peopleBohemian
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

Strasbourg

StrassburgStraßburgStrasbourg, France
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
His divisions follow the three watchwords of the French Revolution: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

Liberté, égalité, fraternité

Liberty, Equality, Fraternityliberty, equality and fraternityliberty, equality, and fraternity
His divisions follow the three watchwords of the French Revolution: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration on Human RightsUnited Nations Universal Declaration of Human RightsThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes rights that are thought of as second generation as well as first generation ones, but it does not make the distinction in itself (the rights listed are not in specific order).

Right to life

right-to-lifeliferight to live
First-generation rights include, among other things, the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, and voting rights.

Equality before the law

equalityequal rightsequality under the law
First-generation rights include, among other things, the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, and voting rights.

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
First-generation rights include, among other things, the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, and voting rights.

Right to a fair trial

fair trialright to fair trialrights of fair and regular trial
First-generation rights include, among other things, the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, and voting rights.

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyfreedom of worship
First-generation rights include, among other things, the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, and voting rights.