Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clotarterial thrombosisblood clot formationthromboembolismthrombosedatherothrombosisblood clottingformation of blood clots
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.wikipedia
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Venous thrombosis

venous thromboembolismthromboembolismthromboembolic disease
Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries (arterial thrombosis).
Thrombosis is a term for a blood clot occurring inside a blood vessel.

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.
A thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through healthy blood vessels.

Fibrin

defibrinatedfibrin modulating agentsfibrins
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.
Excessive generation of fibrin due to activation of the coagulation cascade leads to thrombosis, the blockage of a vessel by an agglutination of red blood cells, platelets, polymerized fibrin and other components.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain, ascites and enlarged liver.

Deep vein

deepdeep veinsdeep vessels
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein.
Occlusion of a deep vein can be life-threatening and is most often caused by thrombosis.

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus.

Ascites

ascitic fluidBulging flanksChylous ascites
This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain, ascites and enlarged liver.
Portal vein thrombosis and splenic vein thrombosis involve clotting of blood affects the hepatic portal vein or varices associated with splenic vein.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.

Acute limb ischaemia

acute limb ischemialimb ischemiacomplications
An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia.
Acute limb ischaemia is caused by embolism or thrombosis, or rarely by dissection or trauma.

Virchow's triad

"Virchow's triad" has been suggested to describe the three factors necessary for the formation of thrombosis: stasis of blood, vessel wall injury, and altered blood coagulation. The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed blood flow.
While both Virchow's and the modern triads describe thrombosis, the previous triad has been characterized as "the consequences of thrombosis", and the modern triad as "the causes of thrombosis".

Pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreasgallstone pancreatitispancreatic inflammation
It usually happens in the setting of another disease such as pancreatitis, cirrhosis, diverticulitis or cholangiocarcinoma.
Birth control pills and HRT cause arterial thrombosis of the pancreas through the accumulation of fat (hypertriglyceridemia).

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
Staphyloccoal or Streptococcal infections of the face, for example nasal or upper lip pustules may thus spread directly into the cavernous sinus, causing stroke-like symptoms of double vision, squint, as well as spread of infection to cause meningitis.
Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) or its blood vessels (cerebral vasculitis), as well as the formation of blood clots in the veins (cerebral venous thrombosis), may all lead to weakness, loss of sensation, or abnormal movement or function of the part of the body supplied by the affected area of the brain.

Antiphospholipid syndrome

antiphospholipid antibody syndromeantiphospholipid antibodiesantiphospholipid antibody
APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Increased fat also creates a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state.

Thrombophilia

hypercoagulabilityhypercoagulable statehypercoagulable
The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed blood flow.
Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels).

Sepsis

septicaemiablood poisoningseptic
Jugular vein thrombosis can have a varying list of complications, including: systemic sepsis, pulmonary embolism, and papilledema.
The damaged endothelial surface inhibits anticoagulant properties as well as increases antifibrinolysis, which may lead to intravascular clotting, the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels, and multiple organ failure.

Protein C

activated protein CPROCproteins C
The end result is a sustained activation of thrombin and reduced production of protein C and tissue factor inhibitor, which furthers the pro-thrombotic state.
Because of the crucial role that protein C plays as an anticoagulant, those with deficiencies in protein C, or some kind of resistance to APC, suffer from a significantly increased risk of forming dangerous blood clots (thrombosis).

Hyperhomocysteinemia

Elevated levels of homocysteineHigh blood levels of the amino acid homocysteineHigh homocysteine levels
Elevated homocysteine is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease as well as thrombosis.

Swelling (medical)

swellingswollenswell
Classical signs of DVT include swelling, pain and redness of the affected area.

Atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrilationparoxysmal atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
The most common cause is atrial fibrillation, which causes a blood stasis within the atria with easy thrombus formation, but blood clots can develop inside the heart for other reasons too.
In addition, it accelerates atherosclerosis, due to its effect of oxidative stress on lipids and inflammation, which leads to the formation of blood clots.

Antithrombin III deficiency

antithrombin deficiencyantithrombinantithrombin III
It is a rare hereditary disorder that generally comes to light when a patient suffers recurrent venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and repetitive intrauterine fetal death (IUFD).

Polycythemia

erythrocytosispolycythaemiaFamilial erythrocytosis
In some cases, affected individuals may have associated conditions including high blood pressure or formation of blood clots.

Dural venous sinuses

dural venous sinusvenous sinusesdural sinuses
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus.
The sinuses can be injured by trauma in which damage to the dura mater, may result in blood clot formation (thrombosis) within the dural sinuses.

Platelet

plateletsplatelet aggregationplatelet count
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.
Normal platelets can respond to an abnormality on the vessel wall rather than to hemorrhage, resulting in inappropriate platelet adhesion/activation and thrombosis: the formation of a clot within an intact vessel.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
Venous thrombosis leads to congestion of the affected part of the body, while arterial thrombosis (and rarely severe venous thrombosis) affects the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery (ischemia and necrosis).
It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from constriction (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).