Thyroglobulin

TGAnti-thyroglobulin antibodiesProloid
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.wikipedia
79 Related Articles

Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid function
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.
They consist of a rim that has a rich blood supply, nerve and lymphatic presence, that surrounds a core of colloid that consists mostly of thyroid hormone precursor proteins called thyroglobulin, an iodinated glycoprotein.

Follicular cell

follicular cellsThyroid epithelial cellthyroid follicular cell
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.
Follicular cells take up iodide and amino acids from the blood circulation on the basolateral side, synthesize thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase from amino acids and secrete these into the thyroid follicles together with iodide.

Thyroid peroxidase

thyroperoxidaseTPOiodide peroxidase
Each thyroglobulin molecule contains approximately 100-120 tyrosine residues, but only a small number (20) of these are subject to iodination by thyroperoxidase in the follicular colloid.
Thyroid peroxidase oxidizes iodide ions to form iodine atoms for addition onto tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin for the production of thyroxine (T 4 ) or triiodothyronine (T 3 ), the thyroid hormones.

Thyroid hormones

thyroid hormonethyroxineT4
Thyroglobulin is a precursor to thyroid hormones, which are produced when thyroglobulin's tyrosine residues are combined with iodine and the protein is subsequently cleaved. Thyroglobulin (Tg) acts as a substrate for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine within the follicular lumen of a thyroid follicle.
- Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and follows the secretory pathway to enter the colloid in the lumen of the thyroid follicle by exocytosis.

Triiodothyronine

T 3 T3triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroglobulin (Tg) acts as a substrate for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine within the follicular lumen of a thyroid follicle.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's diseaseHashimoto’s thyroiditisHashimoto disease
ATAs are often found in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease.
While their role in the initial destruction of the follicles is unclear, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) (also called TPOAb) or thyroglobulin are relevant, as they serve as markers for detecting the disease and its severity.

Graves' disease

Graves diseaseGrave's diseaseGraves’ disease
ATAs are often found in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease.
Genes believed to be involved include those for thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4, among others.

Tumor marker

tumor markerstumour markerantigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate
Hence, thyroglobulin levels in the blood are mainly used as a tumor marker for certain kinds of thyroid cancer (particularly papillary or follicular thyroid cancer).

Dalton (unit)

kDaDaDalton
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.

Dimer (chemistry)

dimerdimerizationdimers
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric glycoprotein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.

N-terminus

N-terminalN terminusN-
Human TG (HTG) is a homodimer of subunits each containing 2768 amino acids as synthesized (a short signal peptide may be removed from the N-terminus in the mature protein).

Tyrosine

Tyrtyrosine metabolismL-tyrosine
Thyroglobulin is a precursor to thyroid hormones, which are produced when thyroglobulin's tyrosine residues are combined with iodine and the protein is subsequently cleaved.

Iodine

II 2 iodinated
Thyroglobulin is a precursor to thyroid hormones, which are produced when thyroglobulin's tyrosine residues are combined with iodine and the protein is subsequently cleaved.

Colloid

colloidscolloidalcolloid chemistry
Each thyroglobulin molecule contains approximately 100-120 tyrosine residues, but only a small number (20) of these are subject to iodination by thyroperoxidase in the follicular colloid.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSHthyroid stimulating hormonethyrotropin
When stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the colloid is endocytosed from the follicular lumen into the surrounding thyroid follicular epithelial cells.

Thyroid cancer

thyroidcancerMalignant neoplasm of thyroid gland
Hence, thyroglobulin levels in the blood are mainly used as a tumor marker for certain kinds of thyroid cancer (particularly papillary or follicular thyroid cancer).

Euthyroid

Their presence is of limited use in the diagnosis of these diseases, since they may also be present in healthy euthyroid individuals.

Protein–protein interaction

interactprotein-protein interactionsprotein-protein interaction
Thyroglobulin has been shown to interact with Binding immunoglobulin protein.

Binding immunoglobulin protein

BiPBiP/Grp78HSPA5
Thyroglobulin has been shown to interact with Binding immunoglobulin protein.

Follicular thyroid cancer

follicularfollicular thyroid carcinomaThyroid carcinoma, follicular
Thyroglobulin (Tg) can be used as a tumor marker for well-differentiated follicular thyroid cancer.

Iodine in biology

iodineProtective effects of iodine on breast cancertrace iodines
These molecules are made from addition-condensation products of the amino acid tyrosine, and are stored prior to release in an iodine-containing protein called thyroglobulin.

Antithyroid autoantibodies

Anti-thyroid autoantibodiesanti-thyroid peroxidase antibodiesanti-microsomal
The most clinically relevant anti-thyroid autoantibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies, TPOAb), thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb).

Papillary thyroid cancer

papillary thyroid carcinomapapillarypapillary carcinoma
Thyroglobulin can be used as a tumor marker for well-differentiated papillary thyroid cancer.