Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid functionthyroid glandsthyroid isthmusThyroid disordersthyroid tissuefolliclefolliclesfollicular
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an.wikipedia
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Thyroid hormones

thyroid hormonethyroxineT4
The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: the two thyroid hormones, thyroxine/T 4 and triiodothyronine/T 3 ; and calcitonin.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ).

Follicular cell

follicular cellsThyroid epithelial cellthyroid follicular cell
Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle, lined with thyroid follicular cells and occasional thyroid parafollicular cells surrounding thyroid colloid.
Follicular cells (also called thyrocytes or thyroid epithelial cells) are the major cell type in the thyroid gland and are responsible for the production and secretion of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Endocrine gland

endocrine glandsductless glandendocrine
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.

Calcitonin

CALCAMiacalcinCalcimar
The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: the two thyroid hormones, thyroxine/T 4 and triiodothyronine/T 3 ; and calcitonin. Calcitonin plays a role in calcium homeostasis.
Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid peptide hormone secreted by parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland in humans, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSHthyroid stimulating hormonethyrotropin
Secretion of the two thyroid hormones is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, or abbreviated TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T 4 ), and then triiodothyronine (T 3 ) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

Hyperthyroidism

thyrotoxicosishyperthyroidoveractive thyroid
Thyroid disorders include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), thyroid enlargement (goitre), thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones: the most common cause is the autoimmune disorder Graves' disease.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism

hypothyroidhypo-underactive thyroid
Thyroid disorders include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), thyroid enlargement (goitre), thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

Parafollicular cell

parafollicular cellsC cellparafollicular
Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle, lined with thyroid follicular cells and occasional thyroid parafollicular cells surrounding thyroid colloid.
Parafollicular cells, also called C cells, are neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid.

Thyroiditis

resolving thyroiditisthyroiditis, suppurativeinflammation of the thyroid
Thyroid disorders include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), thyroid enlargement (goitre), thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer.
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Graves' disease

Graves diseaseGrave's diseaseGraves’ disease
Hyperthyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones: the most common cause is the autoimmune disorder Graves' disease.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.

Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodulesnodulebenign thyroid lesions
Thyroid disorders include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), thyroid enlargement (goitre), thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer.
Thyroid nodules are nodules (raised areas of tissue or fluid) which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland.

Thyroid cancer

thyroidcancerMalignant neoplasm of thyroid gland
Thyroid disorders include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis), thyroid enlargement (goitre), thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer.
Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's diseaseHashimoto’s thyroiditisHashimoto disease
In iodine-sufficient regions, the most common cause of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune disorder Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.

Thyroidectomy

hemithyroidectomythyroid surgeryRobotic thyroidectomy
Many modern treatments and investigative modalities evolved throughout the mid twentieth century, including refinement of surgical techniques for thyroid removal (thyroidectomy) for the treatment of goitre and Graves' disease; the use of radioactive iodine and thiouracil for the treatment of Graves' disease; and fine needle aspiration for diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.

Thyroglossal duct

Ductus thyreoglossus
During migration, the thyroid remains connected to the tongue by a narrow canal, the thyroglossal duct.
The thyroglossal duct is an embryological anatomical structure forming an open connection between the initial area of development of the thyroid gland and its final position.

Calcium metabolism

calcium homeostasiscalciumcalcium absorption
Calcitonin plays a role in calcium homeostasis.
PTH is released by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands when the plasma calcium level falls below the normal range in order to raise it; calcitonin is released by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland when its plasma level of calcium is above the normal range in order to lower it.

Parathyroid gland

parathyroidparathyroid glandsparathyroids
Typically, four parathyroid glands, two on each side, lie on each side between the two layers of the thyroid capsule, at the back of the thyroid lobes.
Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, located on the back of the thyroid gland in variable locations.

Neck

cervicalnuchalcervical region
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an.

Thyroid cartilage

thyroidAdam's Applesuperior thyroid notch
The thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage lie just above the gland, below the Adam's apple.
The thyroid cartilage is a hyaline cartilage structure that sits in front of the larynx and above the thyroid gland.

Thyroid ima artery

The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, and sometimes by an anatomical variant the thyroid ima artery, which has a variable origin.
It is an anatomical variant that, when present, supplies blood to the thyroid gland primarily, or the trachea, the parathyroid gland and the thymus gland (as thymica accessoria) in rare cases.

Superior thyroid artery

Superior laryngeal arterysuperior thyroid arteriesGlandular branches of the superior thyroid artery
The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, and sometimes by an anatomical variant the thyroid ima artery, which has a variable origin.
The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

recurrent nerverecurrent laryngeallaryngeal nerve
In this region, the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery pass next to or in the ligament.
They then pass behind the posterior, middle part of the outer lobes of the thyroid gland and enter the larynx underneath the inferior constrictor muscle, passing into the larynx just posterior to the cricothyroid joint.

Intellectual disability

mental retardationintellectually disabledintellectual disabilities
In iodine deficient regions, hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability in children.

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Secretion of the two thyroid hormones is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland.

Cricoid cartilage

cricoidanterior cricoid arch
The thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage lie just above the gland, below the Adam's apple.
It is also anatomically related to the thyroid gland; although the thyroid isthmus is inferior to it, the two lobes of the thyroid extend superiorly on each side of the cricoid as far as the thyroid cartilage above it.