Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan BuddhistTibetanTibetan BuddhistsBuddhistLamaismLamaistTibetan monkTibetan monksBuddhismBuddhism in Tibet
Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet where it is the dominant religion.wikipedia
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Tibet

TibetanGreater TibetThibet
Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet where it is the dominant religion. The Ganden Phodrang and the successive Gelug tulku lineages of the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas maintained regional control of Tibet from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries.
The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism; in addition there is Bön, which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism, and there are also Tibetan Muslims and Christian minorities.

Nyingma

NyingmapaNyingmapa BuddhismRinchen Terdzod
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug. Trisong Detsen invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva (8th century CE) and Śāntarakṣita (725–788), which are considered the founders of Nyingma (The Ancient Ones), the oldest tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. The late 10th and 11th centuries saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet with the founding of "New Translation" (Sarma) lineages as well as the appearance of "hidden treasures" (terma) literature which reshaped the Nyingma tradition.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).

Kagyu

KagyupaKagyüKagyu School
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug. 1040). Their teachings, via their student Marpa, are the foundations of the Kagyu, the Oral lineage tradition, which focuses on the practices of Mahamudra and the Six Dharmas of Naropa.
The Kagyu, Kagyü, or Kagyud school, which translates to "Oral Lineage" or "Whispered Transmission" school, is one of the main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism.

Gelug

GelugpaGelukpaGeluk
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

Jonang

JonangpaJonang schoolJonang tradition
The Jonang is a smaller school, and the Rimé movement is a recent nonsectarian movement which cuts across the different schools.
The Jonang is one of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

Sakya

SakyapaSakya SchoolSa skya
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug.
The Sakya (, "pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.

Ladakh

LaddakhLadakhiLadakh Division
It is also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas (such as Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim), much of Chinese Central Asia, the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, as well as Mongolia.
The main religious groups in the region are Muslims (mainly Shia) (46%), Tibetan Buddhists (40%), Hindus (12%) and others (2%).

Buddhism in Bhutan

BhutanBhutanese Buddhism74.8%
It is also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas (such as Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim), much of Chinese Central Asia, the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, as well as Mongolia.
Although the Buddhism practiced in Bhutan originated in Tibetan Buddhism, it differs significantly in its rituals, liturgy, and monastic organization.

Padmasambhava

Guru RinpocheGuru PadmasambhavaGuru Rimpoche
Trisong Detsen invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva (8th century CE) and Śāntarakṣita (725–788), which are considered the founders of Nyingma (The Ancient Ones), the oldest tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
A number of legends have grown around Padmasambhava's life and deeds, and he is widely venerated as a "second Buddha" by adherents of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, the Himalayan states of India, and elsewhere.

Rimé movement

Rime movementRiméRime
The Jonang is a smaller school, and the Rimé movement is a recent nonsectarian movement which cuts across the different schools.
The Rimé movement is a movement involving the Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism, along with some Bon scholars.

Terma (religion)

termatermashidden treasures
The late 10th and 11th centuries saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet with the founding of "New Translation" (Sarma) lineages as well as the appearance of "hidden treasures" (terma) literature which reshaped the Nyingma tradition.
Terma ("hidden treasure") are various forms of hidden teachings that are key to Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhist and Bon religious traditions.

Kublai Khan

KublaiKhubilai KhanKubilai Khan
In the pre-modern era, Tibetan Buddhism spread outside of Tibet primarily due to the influence of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), founded by Kublai Khan, which ruled China, Mongolia and parts of Siberia.
Kublai was attracted by the abilities of Tibetan monks as healers.

Ngagpa

ngakpaGomchenNgakma
This includes dealing with the local gods and spirits (sadak and shipdak), which became a specialty of some Tibetan Buddhist lamas and lay ngagpas (mantrikas, mantra specialists).
In Tibetan Buddhism and Bon, a Ngagpa (Sanskrit mantrī) is a non-monastic practitioner of Dzogchen who has received a skra dbang, a hair empowerment, for example in the Dudjom Tersar lineage.

Sakya Trizin

H.H. Sakya TrinzinTrizin
It is headed by the Sakya Trizin, and traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa.
Sakya Trizin ( "Sakya Throne-Holder") is the traditional title of the head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Mahamudra

Mahāmudrāgreat sealAbhāvanā
1040). Their teachings, via their student Marpa, are the foundations of the Kagyu, the Oral lineage tradition, which focuses on the practices of Mahamudra and the Six Dharmas of Naropa.
Mahāmudrā is a multivalent term of great importance in later Indian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism which "also occurs occasionally in Hindu and East Asian Buddhist esotericism."

Gampopa

Gampopa Sonam Rinchen
The Dagpo Kagyu, founded by the monk Gampopa who merged Marpa's lineage teachings with the monastic Kadam tradition is today the most influential Kagyu sub grouping.
Gampopa "the man from Gampo" Sönam Rinchen (, 1079–1153) was a Tibetan Buddhist teacher in the Kagyu lineage, as well as a doctor and tantric master who founded the Dagpo Kagyu school.

Tibetan Buddhist canon

Tibetan canonFive Treatises of MaitreyaBka'-'gyur
It was also during this period that the Tibetan Buddhist canon was compiled, primarily led by the efforts of the scholar Butön Rinchen Drup (1290–1364).
The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism.

Sakya Pandita

Choje Sakya PanditaElegant Sayings of Sakya PanditaKunga Gyeltsen
They eventually annexed Amdo and Kham and appointed the great scholar and abbot Sakya Pandita (1182–1251) as Viceroy of Central Tibet in 1249.
Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyeltsen (Tibetan: ས་སྐྱ་པནདིཏ་ཀུན་དགའ་རྒྱལ་མཚན, )1182-28 November 1251) was a Tibetan spiritual leader and Buddhist scholar and the fourth of the Five Sakya Forefathers.

Dagpo Kagyu

Dakpo Kagyu
The Dagpo Kagyu, founded by the monk Gampopa who merged Marpa's lineage teachings with the monastic Kadam tradition is today the most influential Kagyu sub grouping.
Dagpo Kagyu encompasses the branches of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism that trace their lineage back through Gampopa (1079-1153), who was also known as Dagpo Lhaje "the Physician from Dagpo" and Nyamed Dakpo Rinpoche "Incomparable Precious One from Dagpo".

Mongolia

MongolRepublic of MongoliaMongolian
It is also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas (such as Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim), much of Chinese Central Asia, the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, as well as Mongolia.
After he met with the Dalai Lama in 1578, he ordered the introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia.

Sarma (Tibetan Buddhism)

SarmaNew TranslationKama
The late 10th and 11th centuries saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet with the founding of "New Translation" (Sarma) lineages as well as the appearance of "hidden treasures" (terma) literature which reshaped the Nyingma tradition.
In Tibetan Buddhism, the Sarma or "New Translation" schools include the three newer (Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug) of the four main schools, comprising the following traditions and their sub-branches with their roots in the 11th century:

Marpa Lotsawa

MarpaLama Marpa LotsawaMarpa the Translator
1040). Their teachings, via their student Marpa, are the foundations of the Kagyu, the Oral lineage tradition, which focuses on the practices of Mahamudra and the Six Dharmas of Naropa.
Marpa Lotsāwa (མར་པ་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་བློ་གྲོས་, 1012–1097), sometimes known fully as Marpa Chökyi Lodrö (Wylie: mar pa chos kyi blo gros) or commonly as Marpa the Translator (Marpa Lotsāwa), was a Tibetan Buddhist teacher credited with the transmission of many Vajrayana teachings from India, including the teachings and lineages of Mahamudra.

Karma Kagyu

Karma KagyüBlack Hatblack-hatted
In 1565 the Rinpungpa family was overthrown by the Tsangpa Dynasty of Shigatse which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet in the following decades and favoured the Karma Kagyu sect.
Karma Kagyu, or Kamtsang Kagyu, is a widely practiced and probably the second-largest lineage within the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

5th Dalai Lama

Fifth Dalai LamaLobsang GyatsoNgawang Lobsang Gyatso
During a Tibetan civil war in the 17th century, the chief regent of the 5th Dalai Lama, Sonam Choephel (1595–1657 CE) with the help of the Güshi Khan of the Khoshut Mongols, conquered and unified Tibet and established the Ganden Phodrang government.
He is often referred to simply as the Great Fifth, being a key religious and temporal leader of Tibetan Buddhism and Tibet.

Tulku

tulkusLiving Buddhatülku
The Ganden Phodrang and the successive Gelug tulku lineages of the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas maintained regional control of Tibet from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries.
A tulku (, also tülku, trulku) is a reincarnate custodian of a specific lineage of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism who is given empowerments and trained from a young age by students of his or her predecessor.