Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan BuddhistTibetanTibetan BuddhistsBuddhistLamaismLamaistTibetan monkTibetan monksBuddhismBuddhism in Tibet
Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet where it is the dominant religion.wikipedia
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Bodhicitta

bodhichittaMind of Enlightenmentawakening mind
This motivation is called bodhicitta (mind of awakening) — an altruistic intention to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient beings.
In his book Words of My Perfect Teacher, the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Patrul Rinpoche describes three degrees of bodhicitta: The way of the King, who primarily seeks his own benefit but who recognizes that his benefit depends crucially on that of his kingdom and his subjects.

Naropa

NāropaNāropāNadapada
Other influential Indian teachers include Tilopa (988–1069) and his student Naropa (probably died ca.
He is also remembered as part of the "Golden Garland", meaning he is a lineage holder of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism and was considered an accomplished scholar.

Tantras (Buddhism)

Buddhist TantrastantricTantras
guhyamantra) or Buddhist Tantra, affirming the views espoused in the texts known as the Buddhist Tantras (dating from around the 7th century CE onwards).
It remains the main Buddhist tradition in Nepal, Mongolia and Tibet where it is known as Vajrayana.

Geoffrey Samuel

According to Geoffrey Samuel this was because "Tantric (Vajrayana) Buddhism came to provide the principal set of techniques by which Tibetans dealt with the dangerous powers of the spirit world... Buddhism, in the form of Vajrayana ritual, provided a critical set of techniques for dealing with everyday life. Tibetans came to see these techniques as vital for their survival and prosperity in this life."
Georgios T. Halkias, reviewing Introducing Tibetan Buddhism, called it a knowledgeable and instructive introduction to the topic, providing an "innovative and refreshing" approach covering aspects omitted in other introductions to Tibetan Buddhism.

Mongolia under Qing rule

MongoliaQing ruleQing dynasty
During the Qing, Tibetan Buddhism also remained the major religion of the Mongols under Qing rule (1635–1912), as well as the state religion of the Kalmyk Khanate (1630–1771), the Dzungar Khanate (1634–1758) and the Khoshut Khanate (1642–1717).
The second important factor in the taming of the once powerful Mongols was the "Yellow Hat" school of the Tibetan Buddhism.

Dharmakirti

Dharmakīrti DharmakīrtiDharmakîrti
His texts remain part of studies in the monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism.

Yogacarabhumi-sastra

Yogācārabhūmi-śāstraYogācārabhūmi ŚāstraYogācārabhūmi
Practiced focused texts such as the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra and Kamalaśīla's Bhāvanākrama are the major sources for meditation.
The YBh was studied and transmitted in East Asian Buddhist and Tibetan Buddhist translations.

Mahayoga

MahāyogaEighteen great tantrasMahayoga tantras
In the Nyingma, the division is into Outer Tantras (Kriyayoga, Charyayoga, Yogatantra); and Inner Tantras (Mahayoga, Anuyoga, Atiyoga (Tib.
Mahāyoga (Sanskrit for "great yoga") is the designation of the first of the three Inner Tantras according to the ninefold division of practice used by the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Outer Tantras

KriyatantraKriyayogaYoga tantra
In the Nyingma, the division is into Outer Tantras (Kriyayoga, Charyayoga, Yogatantra); and Inner Tantras (Mahayoga, Anuyoga, Atiyoga (Tib.
The Outer Tantras are the second three divisions in the ninefold division of practice according to the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Lineage (Buddhism)

lineagelineagesPatriarch
Oral transmissions by lineage holders traditionally can take place in small groups or mass gatherings of listeners and may last for seconds (in the case of a mantra, for example) or months (as in the case of a section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon).
Several branches of Buddhism, including Chan (including Zen and Seon) and Tibetan Buddhism maintain records of their historical teachers.

Tonglen

Taking and giving
A popular compassion meditation in Tibetan Buddhism is Tonglen (sending and taking love and suffering respectively).
Tonglen (, or tonglen ) is Tibetan for 'giving and taking' (or sending and receiving), and refers to a meditation practice found in Tibetan Buddhism.

Prajnaparamita

PrajñāpāramitāPerfection of Wisdomprajñaparamita
Among the most widely studied sutras in Tibetan Buddhism are Mahayana sutras such as the perfection of wisdom or Prajñāpāramitā sutras, and others such as the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra, and the Samādhirāja Sūtra.
Additionally, Prajñāpāramitā terma teachings are held by some Tibetan Buddhists to have been conferred upon Nāgārjuna by the Nāgarāja "King of the Nāgas", who had been guarding them at the bottom of the sea.

Ngöndro

NgondroFour Preliminariespreliminary practices
The aim of preliminary practices (ngöndro) is to start the student on the correct path for such higher teachings.
The Tibetan term Ngöndro (, pūrvaka ) refers to the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (Sanskrit: sādhanā) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and also to Bon.

Arunachal Pradesh

ArunachalAka HillsArunachal Pradesh, India
The Indian regions of Sikkim and Ladakh, both formerly independent kingdoms, are also home to significant Tibetan Buddhist populations, as are the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh (which includes Dharamshala and the district of Lahaul-Spiti), West Bengal (the hill stations of Darjeeling and Kalimpong) and Arunachal Pradesh.
Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet.

Samye

Samye MonasteryBsam yasSam-ye
Trisong Detsen also invited the Chan master Moheyan to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery.

Bodhisattva

BodhisattvasBoddhisattvaBoddhisatva
Bodhisattvas (Tib.
This can be seen in the Tibetan Buddhist teaching on three types of motivation for generating bodhicitta.

Thangka

thankaThangkastanka
Ritual is generally more elaborate than in other forms of Buddhism, with complex altar arrangements and works of art (such as mandalas and thangkas), many ritual objects, hand gestures (mudra), chants, and musical instruments.
A thangka, variously spelt as thangka, tangka, thanka, or tanka (Nepal Bhasa: पौभा), is a Tibetan Buddhist painting on cotton, silk appliqué, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, scene, or mandala.

Kalmykia

Republic of KalmykiaKalmykKalmyks
Today, Tibetan Buddhism is adhered to widely in the Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Nepal, Kalmykia (on the north-west shore of the Caspian), Siberia (Tuva and Buryatia), the Russian Far East and northeast China.
Tibetan Buddhism is the traditional and most popular religion among the Kalmyks, while Russians in the country practice predominantly Russian Orthodoxy.

Bhāvanākrama

Bhavanakrama
Practiced focused texts such as the Yogācārabhūmi-Śāstra and Kamalaśīla's Bhāvanākrama are the major sources for meditation.
These works are the principal texts for mental development and the practice of shamatha and vipashyana in Tibetan Buddhism and have been "enormously influential".

Lama

teacherGuruhigh lama
At the beginning of a public teaching, a lama will do prostrations to the throne on which he will teach due to its symbolism, or to an image of the Buddha behind that throne, then students will do prostrations to the lama after he is seated.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest" ) is a title for a teacher of the Dharma in Tibetan Buddhism.

Langdarma

LangdharmaLang DarmaLang-dar-ma
A reversal in Buddhist influence began under King Langdarma (r.

Anuttarayoga Tantra

anuttarayogatantraHighest Yoga TantraAnuttarayoga
In what is called higher yoga tantra the emphasis is on various yoga practices which allow the practitioner to realize the true nature of reality.
Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud), often translated as Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the 'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.

Sentient beings (Buddhism)

sentient beingsliving beingssentient being
The Mahāyāna goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of Buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state.
Furthermore, and particularly in Tibetan Buddhism and Japanese Buddhism, all beings (including plant life and even inanimate objects or entities considered "spiritual" or "metaphysical" by conventional Western thought) are or may be considered sentient beings.

Bardo

intermediate stateantarabhava49 days
Of central importance to Tibetan Buddhist Ars moriendi is the idea of the Bardo (Sanskrit: antarābhava), the intermediate or liminal state between life and death.
In Tibetan Buddhism, bardo is the central theme of the Bardo Thodol (literally Liberation Through Hearing During the Intermediate State), the Tibetan Book of the Dead.

Vajrasattva

Dorje Sempa100 syllable mantraBuddha Vajrasattva
The most widespread preliminary practices include: taking refuge, prostration, Vajrasattva meditation, mandala offering and guru yoga.
In Tibetan Buddhism Vajrasattva is associated with the sambhogakāya and purification practice.