Tiele people

TieleGaocheTeleChileTongluoTiele ConfederationDinlingsTiele tribesTiele TurkicTiĕlè (鐵勒) confederation
The Tiele (, Turkic *Tegreg "[People of the] Carts" ), also transliterated as Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine tribes living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.wikipedia
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Dingling

ChileTing-lingDinlin
Chinese sources associate them with the earlier Dingling.
Around the 3rd century they were assimilated into the Tiele, also named Di, Dili, Gaoche or Chile, who gradually expanded westward into Central Asia.

Rouran Khaganate

RouranKhagan of RouranRourans
By the time of the Rouran domination, the Gaoche comprised six tribes and twelve clans.
The Rouran expanded westward and defeated the neighboring Tiele people and expanded their territory over the Silk Roads, even vassalizing the Hephthalites which remained so until the beginning of the 5th century.

Northern Wei

Northern Wei DynastyWeiand future dynasties
In 391 the Rouran chief, Heduohan was killed by the Tuoba Northern Wei.
That same year he defeated the Tiele tribes near the Gobi desert.

Yujiulü Datan

Datan
During the reign of Shelun and his successor Datan, the Rouran pushed as far as the Issyk Kul, where they defeated the Wusun and drove them to the south.
Later Buluzhen became involved in a love affair with a younger wife of Gaoche leader Chiluohou .

Xueyantuo

Syr-TardushXuè-Yántuó
Like the later Qibi and Xueyantuo in 605, the Fufuluo divided their rule between north and south at Dzungaria.
The Xueyantuo (also transcribed as Seyanto, Se-yanto, Se-Yanto) or Syr-Tardush were an ancient Tiele Turkic people and Turkic khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of the Gokturks, later aligning with China's Tang Dynasty against the Eastern Gokturks.

Yujiulü Shelun

ShelunJarun
Heduohan's brother Shelun raided several tribal dependencies of the Tuoba in retaliation, but reportedly suffered a serious defeat in 399, and was forced to flee westward.
There he subjugated the Hulu tribe and with an aid of a Hulu called Chiluohou he defeated the Gaoche, then declared himself Khagan.

Yujiulü Nagai

Nagai
After a disagreement, A-Fuzhiluo betrayed him, and in 487, together with his younger cousin Qiongqi, they managed their clans of over 100,000 yurts to escape from the pursuing armies, led by Dulun and his uncle Nagai by defeating them.
He fought against Gaoche ruler Afuzhiluo who together with his younger cousin Qiongqi, they managed their clans of over 100,000 yurts to escape from the pursuing armies, led by Doulun and Nagai in 487.

Göktürks

TujueGöktürkGokturks
From then on, little is known about the rest of the Gaoche until the Göktürks. Like the Göktürks, the Tiele were probably one of many nomadic Turkic peoples on the steppe.
According to the New Book of Tang, the Ashina were related to the northern tribes of the Xiongnu, in particular they were of Tiele tribe by ancestral lineage.

Yujiulü Doulun

Dulun
After the death of Yucheng, his belligerent son Dulun fought more wars against the Touba.
He was defeated by Gaoche ruler Afuzhiluo together with his younger cousin Qiongqi, they managed their clans of over 100,000 yurts to escape from the pursuing armies, led by Dulun and his uncle Nagai by defeating them in 487.

Gaochang

KarakhojaKara-KhojaCarachoco
They escaped and established a state northwest of Gaochang in 487.
At this time the Gaoche was rising to challenge power of the Rouran in the Tarim Basin.

Yujiulü Anagui

AnaguiRouran ruler
Thereafter, the Fufuluo suffered a series of defeats from Anagui before being annihilated in 541.
Poluomen's further defeat by Gaoche forced Northern Wei to divide Rouran between Anagui and Poluomen in order to establish stability.

Xiongnu

Xiongnu EmpireSouthern XiongnuNorthern Xiongnu
The Tiele (, Turkic *Tegreg "[People of the] Carts" ), also transliterated as Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine tribes living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.
Chinese sources link the Tiele people and Ashina to the Xiongnu, not all Turkic peoples.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
Like the Göktürks, the Tiele were probably one of many nomadic Turkic peoples on the steppe.
Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people.

Hephthalites

HephthaliteHephthalite EmpireWhite Huns
With the elimination of Rouran influence, the Hephthalites, kindred steppe nomads, for the first time extended their domain as far as Karashahr, where Qiongqi was killed and his son Mietu was taken hostage.

Yujiulü Chounu

ChounuDouluofubadoufa Khan
Later in 516, Chounu, son of Futu, defeated Mietu, and in reprisal had him towed to death by a horse.
He was firstborn son of Yujiulü Futu and he succeeded his father when he was killed in a battle against Gaoche.

Yujiulü Futu

Futu
In 508, Futu attacked the Fufuluo and gained a victory, but was killed by Mietu on his course back.
The emperor replied that peace with Northern Wei could be earned by fighting the Gaoche.

Bumin Qaghan

BuminBumin KhanBumin Khagan
In 546 the remainder of the Fufuluo, now called Tiele, rebelled and were defeated by Bumin Khan at Dzungaria.
In that same year, Tumen put down a revolt of the Tiele tribes against the Rouran Khaganate, their overlords.

Ashina tribe

AshinaAshina clanAshina dynasty
This view was later supported by Onogawa Hidemi in 1940, who also speculated on a Tiele origin for the Ashina clan.
According to the New Book of Tang, the Ashina were related to the northern tribes of the Xiongnu, in particular they were of Tiele tribe by ancestral lineage.

Heshana Qaghan

Heshana KhanHeshana KhaganChuluo Khan
His son Heshana Khan succeeded him in the Western Qaghanate, levying heavy taxes on the Tiele.
He was said to be collecting excessive taxes from the Chile, leading to resentment among the Tiele.

Türgesh

TurgeshTurgesh KhaganateTurgesh Kaganate
Raids continued elsewhere as Qapagan turned his attention to the west and the Turgesh and Qarluq tribes between 708 and 715.
According to the epigraphy of Qibi Song, a Tiele mercenary in the service of the Tang dynasty (730), the origins of the Qibi can be traced to the Khangai Mountains prior to their presence in the Bogda Mountains during the 6th century.

Tuyuhun

Tuyuhun KingdomA-zhaAza
In 603 he was revolted against by the Tiele tribes, provoked by the Chinese, and fled to the Tuyuhun.
As a realm just between the Chinese empires in the east (Northern Wei, and the Southern Dynasties) and other steppe tribes such as the Rouran Khaganate and the Tiele people, the Tuyuhun acted as envoys and traders, while many Buddhist missionaries and travelers crossed their country.

Duomi Khan

BazhuoDuomi
The Xueyantuo founded a short-lived Qaghanate over the steppe under Zhenzhu Khan, his son Duomi Khan and nephew Yitewushi Khan, the last of which eventually surrendered to the Chinese.
Yaoluoge Tumidu, the chieftain of Xueyantuo's vassal tribe Huige, rebelled along with the Pugu and Tongluo tribes and dealt Bazhuo a great defeat.

Basmyl

BaximiBasmylsBasmals
Within a few years, an alliance was established between the Basmyl, Uyghur and Qarluq.
In effect, the territory captured by Tang by 659 was divided between the Chinese, the Türkic Kaganate, and Türgeshes, a people who did not belong to the Tiele, Chuy, or Türkut group, but are first known as one of the five Dulu tribes.

Qapaghan Qaghan

Ashina MochuoQapaghanQapagan Khaghan
Raids continued elsewhere as Qapagan turned his attention to the west and the Turgesh and Qarluq tribes between 708 and 715.
Khagan was on his way back from suppressing the revolting Tiele tribes of Huihe, Tongluo, Baixi, Bayegu and Pugu, was ambushed killed by a Bayegu tribesman named Xiezhilue on July 22, 716 while passing through a forest.

Central Asia

Central AsianCentralCentral Asian Republics
The Tiele (, Turkic *Tegreg "[People of the] Carts" ), also transliterated as Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine tribes living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.