Tierra del Fuego

Archipiélago de Tierra del FuegoFuegiansIsla Grande de Tierra del Fuegosouthernmost tipTerra del FuegoTierra del FueganTierra del Fuego ArchipelagoTierra del Fuego ArchipielagoTierra del Fuego, Archipelago
Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.wikipedia
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Strait of Magellan

Straits of MagellanMagellan StraitsMagellanic
Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.

Cape Horn

Hornthe HornCabo de Hornos, or "Cape Horn", the southern tip of South America.
The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48100 km2, and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos, ) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.

Beagle Channel

Beagle, Canal
Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the latter controlling the eastern half of the main island and the former the western half plus the islands south of Beagle Channel.
Beagle Channel (Canal Beagle) is a strait in Tierra del Fuego Archipelago on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina.

Tierra del Fuego gold rush

a gold rushdiscovery of goldduring a gold rush
Settlement by those of European descent and the great displacement of the native populations did not begin until the second half of the 19th century, at the height of the Patagonian sheep farming boom and of the local gold rush.
Between 1883 and 1906 Tierra del Fuego experienced a gold rush attracting a large number of Chileans, Argentines and Europeans to the archipelago, including a large number of Dalmatians.

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del FuegoTierra del Fuego IslandIsla Grande
The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48100 km2, and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands.
It forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago also known as Tierra del Fuego.

South America

SouthSouth AmericanSouth-
Tierra del Fuego (, ; Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island (in Oceania but belonging to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé (both Chilean) and Tierra del Fuego (split in between Chile and Argentina).

Fuegians

FuegianFuegian peoplesnative people of Tierra de Fuego
On his first voyage with in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including "Jemmy Button" (Orundellico) and brought them to England.
Fuegians are one of the three tribes of indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America.

Robert FitzRoy

FitzRoyCaptain FitzRoyFitzRoy, Robert
On his first voyage with in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including "Jemmy Button" (Orundellico) and brought them to England.
He achieved lasting fame as the captain of during Charles Darwin's famous voyage, FitzRoy's second expedition to Tierra del Fuego and the Southern Cone.

Jemmy Button

On his first voyage with in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including "Jemmy Button" (Orundellico) and brought them to England.
Orundellico, known as "Jeremy Button" or "Jemmy Button" (c. 1815–1864), was a native Fuegian of the Yaghan (or Yámana) people from islands around Tierra del Fuego, in modern Chile and Argentina.

Dawson Island

DawsonIsla DawsonDawson, Isla
Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island.
Dawson Island (Isla Dawson) is an island in the Strait of Magellan that forms part of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, 100 km south of the city of Punta Arenas in Chile, and part of the Municipality of Punta Arenas.

Thomas Bridges (Anglican missionary)

Thomas Bridges
Thomas Bridges (1842–1898) learned the language and compiled a 30,000-word Yaghan grammar and dictionary while he worked at Ushuaia.
1842 – 1898) was an Anglican missionary and linguist, the first to set up a successful mission to the indigenous peoples in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia, Argentina
Anglican missions were established by British colonists at Keppel Island in the Falklands in 1855 and in 1870 at Ushuaia on the main island, which continued to operate through the 19th century.
The Selk’nam Indians, also called the Ona, first arrived in Tierra del Fuego about 10,000 years ago.

Francisco de Hoces

Hoces
In 1525 Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was then called Terra Australis.
This is commonly understood as that they saw open waters westward away of a point of land that could be the southeasternmost tip of either Tierra del Fuego (Cape San Diego) or Isla de los Estados (Cape San Juan).

Selk'nam genocide

genocidea few Selk'nam remainOna people
Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, Popper has been identified as a central figure in the Selk'nam Genocide.
The Selk'nam genocide was the genocide of the Selk'nam people, one of three indigenous tribes populating the Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the second half of the 19th to the early 20th century.

Porvenir, Chile

PorvenirPuerto Porvenir
The gold rushes of the late 19th century led to the founding of numerous small settlements by immigrants such as the Argentine settlements of Ushuaia and Río Grande and the Chilean settlements of Porvenir and Puerto Toro.
It is the largest settlement in the Chilean half of the island of Tierra del Fuego.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles
They returned to Tierra del Fuego in Beagle with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands.
Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet at Tierra del Fuego he met "miserable, degraded savages", as different as wild from domesticated animals.

Ferdinand Magellan

MagellanFernão de MagalhãesFernando de Magallanes
Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellan's expedition of 1520; Tierra del Fuego and similar namings stem from sightings of the many bonfires that the natives built.
Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait.

Francis Drake

Sir Francis DrakeDrakeDrake, Francis
Francis Drake in 1578 and a Dutch East India Company expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography.
The first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the 1618 publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in 1616.

Julius Popper

Julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region.
Known as a modern "conquistador" of Tierra del Fuego in southern South America, he was a controversial but influential figure.

Keppel Island

KeppelCranmer
Anglican missions were established by British colonists at Keppel Island in the Falklands in 1855 and in 1870 at Ushuaia on the main island, which continued to operate through the 19th century.
An Anglican missionary settlement set up in the mid-19th century served some Yaghan people brought there from Tierra del Fuego.

Magallanes Region

MagallanesMagallanes y la Antártica ChilenaMagallanes and Antártica Chilena
They are part of the Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region, the capital and chief town of which is Punta Arenas, situated on the mainland across the strait.
Magallanes's geographical features include Torres del Paine, Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego island, and the Strait of Magellan.

Terra Australis

Southern ContinentTerra Australis IncognitaTerra Incognita
In 1525 Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was then called Terra Australis.
At its largest, the continent included Tierra del Fuego, separated from South America by a small strait; New Guinea; and what would come to be called Australia.

Empresa Nacional del Petróleo

ENAP
Extraction began in 1949, and in 1950 the state created ENAP (National Petroleum Company) to deal with oil extraction and prospecting.
It was initially responsible for prospecting and exploiting oil in Tierra del Fuego and the Strait of Magellan, where deposits were discovered between 1945 and 1950.

Cordillera Darwin

Darwin Range
The Cordillera Darwin in the southwestern part of the main island contains many glaciers that reach the ocean.
It is part of the longest Andes range and includes the highest mountains in Tierra del Fuego, with elevations reaching over 2,000 m; The ice field of the Cordillera Darwin covers an area greater than 2300 km2.

Southernmost settlements

southernmost city in the worldsouthernmost villagethe southernmost cities in the world
Puerto Toro lies a few kilometers south of Puerto Williams and is arguably the southernmost village in the world.
Ushuaia (, (-54.8°N, -68.3°W, pop:71,000), the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, is more commonly regarded as the southernmost city in the world due to its large population, 71,000, its infrastructure and its accepted classification as a city. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, on the northern shore of the Beagle Channel; hence, it is further north than Puerto Williams.