Tim Berners-Lee

Berners-Lee in 2014
Berners-Lee, 2005
This NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first web server
Tim Berners-Lee at the Home Office, London, on 11 March 2010
Berners-Lee speaking at the launch of the World Wide Web Foundation
Berners-Lee's tweet, "This is for everyone", at the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London
Tim Berners-Lee at the Science Museum for the Web@30 event, March 2019

English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

- Tim Berners-Lee

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World Wide Web

World's dominant software platform.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.
A web page displayed in a web browser
A global map of the Web Index for countries in 2014
This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
The World Wide Web functions as an application layer protocol that is run "on top of" (figuratively) the Internet, helping to make it more functional. The advent of the Mosaic web browser helped to make the web much more usable, to include the display of images and moving images (GIFs).
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
A screenshot of a web page on Wikimedia Commons
Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL)
The usap.gov website
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge web server, a computer designed for rack mounting
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website; here, Dell servers are installed together to be used for the Wikimedia Foundation.
The results of a search for the term "lunar eclipse" in a web-based image search engine

It was invented by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989 and opened to the public in 1991.

World Wide Web Foundation

US-based international non-profit organisation advocating for a free and open web for everyone.

It was co-founded by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, and Rosemary Leith.

NeXTSTEP

Discontinued object-oriented, multitasking operating system based on the Mach kernel and the UNIX-derived BSD.

NeXTSTEP graphical user interface

It was also the platform on which Tim Berners-Lee created the first web browser, and on which id Software developed the video games Doom and Quake.

World Wide Web Consortium

Main international standards organization for the World Wide Web.

Founded in 1994 and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations that maintain full-time staff working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web.

Uniform Resource Identifier

Unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies.

URI syntax diagram

In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee's proposals for hypertext implicitly introduced the idea of a URL as a short string representing a resource that is the target of a hyperlink.

Semantic Web

Extension of the World Wide Web through standards set by the World Wide Web Consortium .

Graph resulting from the RDFa example
Graph resulting from the RDFa example, enriched with further data from the Web
The Semantic Web Stack

The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data (or data web) that can be processed by machines —that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable.

Hypertext

Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.
Engineer Vannevar Bush wrote "As We May Think" in 1945 in which he described the Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and software that demonstrated many hypertext ideas.
Ted Nelson gives a presentation on Project Xanadu, a theoretical hypertext model conceived in the 1960s whose first and incomplete implementation was first published in 1998.
Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 Display console – Brown University 1969

In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, which was not invented until 1987.

CERN

European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
1954 (12 members): CERN is founded {{Cref|a}} (1954-1990 borders)
Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN
CMS detector for LHC
Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.
ESO and CERN have a cooperation agreement.
The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN
1959 (13 members): Austria joins (1954-1990 borders)
1983 (13 members): Spain re-joins (1954-1990 borders)
1969 (12 members): Spain leaves (1954-1990 borders)
1985 (14 members): Portugal joins (1954-1990 borders)
1991 (16 members): Poland and Finland join, and Germany has been reunified (post 1993 borders)
1992 (17 members): Hungary joins (post 1993 borders)
1993 (19 members): Czech Republic and Slovakia join (post 1993 borders)
1999 (20 members): Bulgaria joins (post 1993 borders)
Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at dates of change)

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (AI Lab).

MacArthur Fellows Tim Berners-Lee, Erik Demaine, Dina Katabi, Daniela L. Rus, Regina Barzilay, Peter Shor, Richard Stallman, and Joshua Tenenbaum

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Application layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite model for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

URL beginning with the HTTP scheme and the WWW domain name label
Tim Berners-Lee
An HTTP/1.1 request made using telnet. The request message, response header section, and response body are highlighted.

Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989 and summarized in a simple document describing the behavior of a client and a server using the first HTTP protocol version that was named 0.9.