Timar

timarsTimar Systemtımarfieffeudal system of the Ottoman Empirefiefdomsland
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.wikipedia
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Timariots

timariotfeudal cavalryTimarli
A Timar holder was known as a Timariot.
In return for service, each timariot received a parcel of revenue called a timar, a fief, which were usually recently conquered plots of agricultural land in the countryside.

Emin (Ottoman official)

emincustoms official
1) appoint administrator (emin – accompanied by clerk (Katip) and regional Kadi collected available documentation about land and building ownership and local taxes
Unlike a timar holder, an emin was a salaried official.

Ziamet

zeametfeudalza'amah
If the revenues produced from the timar were from 20,000 to 100,000 akçes, the timar would be called zeamet, and if they were above 100,000 akçes, the land would be called hass.
A Zeamet was the appellative given to a land in the timar system during the Ottoman Empire between the 14th and 16th centuries, that had a tax revenue with an annual value between 20 000 and 100,000 akçes.

Sanjak

sanjakssandjakQada
Arpalik was a large estate (i.e. sanjak) entrusted to some holder of senior position, or to some margrave, as a temporary arrangement before they were appointed to some appropriate position.
Ottoman provinces (eyalets, later vilayets) were divided into sanjaks (also called livas) governed by sanjakbeys (also called Mutesarriff) and were further subdivided into timars (fiefs held by timariots), kadiluks (the area of responsibility of a judge, or Kadı) and zeamets (also ziam; larger timars).

Sipahi

sipahisOttoman cavalrysepahi
In the Ottoman Empire, the Timar system was one in which the projected revenue of a conquered territory was distributed in the form of temporary land grants among the Sipahis (cavalrymen) and other members of the military class including Janissaries and other kuls (slaves) of the sultan.
The timar system, where the sultan owned all land but individual plots of land, came with residential rights.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
By the time Mehmed II (r.
Demoralized, he escaped to Akkoyunlu territory where he was given a tımar (fief) in Bayburt.

Pronoia

pronoierspronoiaipronoier
Pronoia of the late Byzantine era is perhaps the immediate predecessor of the Timar system.
The empire continued to lose land to the Ottoman Empire, and Constantinople was finally lost in 1453, but the Ottomans continued to use their own version of the pronoia system, called the timar system, which they had borrowed from the Eastern Romans during their conquests.

Muqata'ah

Leasesmaktoumukata
Once under direct control the vacant land would be turned into Tax Farms (muqata'ah) in order to ensure greater cash revenue for the central government.
Mukata’a, in the history of the Ottoman Empire, describes the parcels of hass-ı hümayun (land owned by the Ottoman crown) that were distributed not according to the timar system of in-kind distribution farming and tax collection, but rather via the iltizam auction system, where rights to collect revenue on the land were sold to the highest bidder, eventually for duration of the life of the buyer.

Arpalik

The institution of arpalik was introduced to make burden of government officials easier by compensating losses of its high officials.
This tensions probably additionally contributed to the decay of the traditional timar system because it left sipahi out of the clear chain of command.

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman SultanSultanSultan of the Ottoman Empire
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.

Akçe

aspersakceasper
A timar was land granted by the Ottoman sultans between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, with a tax revenue annual value of less than 20 000 akçes.

Hass (Ottoman)

hasshas
If the revenues produced from the timar were from 20,000 to 100,000 akçes, the timar would be called zeamet, and if they were above 100,000 akçes, the land would be called hass.

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire

jasyrOttoman slave tradeslaves
In the Ottoman Empire, the Timar system was one in which the projected revenue of a conquered territory was distributed in the form of temporary land grants among the Sipahis (cavalrymen) and other members of the military class including Janissaries and other kuls (slaves) of the sultan.

Rome

Rome, ItalyRomanRoma
Elements of the Timar system however can be seen to have their origins in Pre-Islamic antiquity (Ancient Middle Eastern Empires, Rome, Byzantium, and Pre-Islamic Iran).

Byzantium

ByzantineByzantionByzantine Empire
Elements of the Timar system however can be seen to have their origins in Pre-Islamic antiquity (Ancient Middle Eastern Empires, Rome, Byzantium, and Pre-Islamic Iran).

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Elements of the Timar system however can be seen to have their origins in Pre-Islamic antiquity (Ancient Middle Eastern Empires, Rome, Byzantium, and Pre-Islamic Iran).

Mehmed I

Mehmet IMehmed ÇelebiMehmed
However, it was not until the re-emergence of the empire under Mehmed I in 1413 that a tenure system that was distinctly Timar was developed.

Timur

TamerlaneTimur LenkAmir Timur
Before the collapse of the empire by Timur in 1402, Bayezid had granted quasi- Timar holdings to his own slaves.

Bayezid I

Beyazid IBayezid I, the ThunderboltSultan Bayezid I
Before the collapse of the empire by Timur in 1402, Bayezid had granted quasi- Timar holdings to his own slaves.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman turned once more to the familiar policy of expansion through conquest.

Kadi (Ottoman Empire)

kadıkadiKadis
1) appoint administrator (emin – accompanied by clerk (Katip) and regional Kadi collected available documentation about land and building ownership and local taxes

Ottoman law

kanunnameOttoman Ottoman
2) information is written down and codified in a narrative called (Kanunname) that mediated and resolved contradictions especially between those two non-Islamic legal traditions –local and imperial; upon which the Ottomans based their dominion

Janissaries

JanissaryJannisaryJannisaries
In the Ottoman Empire, the Timar system was one in which the projected revenue of a conquered territory was distributed in the form of temporary land grants among the Sipahis (cavalrymen) and other members of the military class including Janissaries and other kuls (slaves) of the sultan.

Margrave

margraviateMargravineMarkgraf
Arpalik was a large estate (i.e. sanjak) entrusted to some holder of senior position, or to some margrave, as a temporary arrangement before they were appointed to some appropriate position.