Time-sharing

timesharingtime sharingtime-sharing systemtime-sharedtimeshareinteractmulti-accessmultiple usersnotable time-sharing systemsremote timesharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.wikipedia
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Concurrent computing

concurrentconcurrent programmingconcurrency
By allowing many users to interact concurrently with a single computer, time-sharing dramatically lowered the cost of providing computing capability, made it possible for individuals and organizations to use a computer without owning one, and promoted the interactive use of computers and the development of new interactive applications.
For example, concurrent processes can be executed on one core by interleaving the execution steps of each process via time-sharing slices: only one process runs at a time, and if it does not complete during its time slice, it is paused, another process begins or resumes, and then later the original process is resumed.

Compatible Time-Sharing System

CTSSCompatible Time Sharing System
One of the deliverables of the project, known as the Compatible Time-Sharing System or CTSS, was demonstrated in November 1961.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.

John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthyMcCarthyMcCarthy, John
The first project to implement time-sharing of user programs was initiated by John McCarthy at MIT in 1959, initially planned on a modified IBM 704, and later on an additionally modified IBM 709 (one of the first computers powerful enough for time-sharing).
He coined the term "artificial intelligence" (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, invented garbage collection, and was very influential in the early development of AI.

JOSS

JOSS IIJOSS I
JOSS began time-sharing service in January 1964.
JOSS, an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System, was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages.

Computer multitasking

multitaskingmulti-taskingmultitask
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
In a time-sharing system, multiple human operators use the same processor as if it was dedicated to their use, while behind the scenes the computer is serving many users by multitasking their individual programs.

Dartmouth Time Sharing System

Dartmouth Time-Sharing SystemDTSSDartmouth College Timesharing System
The first commercially successful time-sharing system was the Dartmouth Time Sharing System.
It was the first successful large-scale time-sharing system to be implemented, and was also the system for which the BASIC language was developed.

Computer terminal

terminalterminalsdumb terminal
Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, computer terminals were multiplexed onto large institutional mainframe computers (centralized computing systems), which in many implementations sequentially polled the terminals to see whether any additional data was available or action was requested by the computer user.
A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Generally, computer terminals were utilized on college properties in much the same places as desktop computers or personal computers are found today.
Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.

SDS 940

SDS-940XDS-940XDS 940
Common systems used for time-sharing included the SDS 940, the PDP-10, and the IBM 360.
The SDS 940 was Scientific Data Systems' (SDS) first machine designed to directly support time-sharing.

PDP-10

DECsystem-10DEC PDP-10DEC-10
Common systems used for time-sharing included the SDS 940, the PDP-10, and the IBM 360. For DEC, for a while the second largest computer company (after IBM), this was also true: Their PDP-10 and IBM's 360/67 were widely used by commercial timesharing services such as CompuServe, On-Line Systems (OLS), Rapidata and Time Sharing Ltd.
The PDP-10 is the machine that made time-sharing common, and this and other features made it a common fixture in many university computing facilities and research labs during the 1970s, the most notable being Harvard University's Aiken Computation Laboratory, MIT's AI Lab and Project MAC, Stanford's SAIL, Computer Center Corporation (CCC), ETH (ZIR), and Carnegie Mellon University.

National CSS

Companies providing this service included GE's GEISCO, IBM subsidiary The Service Bureau Corporation, Tymshare (founded in 1966), National CSS (founded in 1967 and bought by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979), Dial Data (bought by Tymshare in 1968), Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) and Time Sharing Ltd. in the U.K..
National CSS, Inc. (NCSS) was a time-sharing firm in the 1960-80s, until its acquisition by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979.

Mainframe computer

mainframemainframesmainframe computers
Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, computer terminals were multiplexed onto large institutional mainframe computers (centralized computing systems), which in many implementations sequentially polled the terminals to see whether any additional data was available or action was requested by the computer user.
By the early 1970s, many mainframes acquired interactive user terminals operating as timesharing computers, supporting hundreds of users simultaneously along with batch processing.

IBM System/360 Model 67

IBM System/360-67System/360 Model 67Model 67
For DEC, for a while the second largest computer company (after IBM), this was also true: Their PDP-10 and IBM's 360/67 were widely used by commercial timesharing services such as CompuServe, On-Line Systems (OLS), Rapidata and Time Sharing Ltd.
Unlike the rest of the S/360 series, it included features to facilitate time-sharing applications, notably a Dynamic Address Translation unit, the "DAT box", to support virtual memory, 32-bit addressing and the 2846 Channel Controller to allow sharing channels between processors.

Tymshare

TymeshareTymshare, Inc.
Tymshare, Inc. was a time-sharing service and third-party hardware maintenance company competing with companies such as CompuServe, Service Bureau Corporation and National CSS.

Allen-Babcock

Allen-Babcock Computing was founded in Los Angeles in 1964 by James D Babcock and Michael Jane Allen Babcock to take advantage of the fast-growing market for computer time-sharing services.

Tymnet

System 1022System 1032Software House
Companies providing this service included GE's GEISCO, IBM subsidiary The Service Bureau Corporation, Tymshare (founded in 1966), National CSS (founded in 1967 and bought by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979), Dial Data (bought by Tymshare in 1968), Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) and Time Sharing Ltd. in the U.K..
Tymshare was founded in 1964 as a time sharing company, selling computer time and software packages for users.

Scientific Data Systems

Xerox Data SystemsSDSXDS
The Auerbach Guide to Timesharing (1973) lists 125 different timesharing services using equipment from Burroughs, CDC, DEC, HP, Honeywell, IBM, RCA, Univac, and XDS.
Project Genie developed a segmentation and relocation system for time sharing use on the 930 at the University of California, Berkeley, which was commercialized in the SDS 940.

Berkeley Timesharing System

The Berkeley Timesharing System was a pioneering time-sharing operating system implemented between 1964 and 1967 at the University of California, Berkeley.

IBM System/360

System/360IBM 360IBM/360
Common systems used for time-sharing included the SDS 940, the PDP-10, and the IBM 360.
The Model 67, announced in August 1965, was the first production IBM system to offer dynamic address translation (virtual memory) hardware to support time-sharing.

Service bureau

bureauxbureau
In the 1960s, several companies started providing time-sharing services as service bureaus.
A few decades later, sharing of mainframes via Timesharing was a step forward.

BBN Technologies

Bolt, Beranek and NewmanBBNBolt Beranek and Newman
Companies providing this service included GE's GEISCO, IBM subsidiary The Service Bureau Corporation, Tymshare (founded in 1966), National CSS (founded in 1967 and bought by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979), Dial Data (bought by Tymshare in 1968), Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) and Time Sharing Ltd. in the U.K..
McCarthy had been unsuccessful in convincing MIT engineers to build time-sharing systems for computers.

HP 3000

HP3000HP-30003000
It was designed to be the first minicomputer with full support for time-sharing in the hardware and the operating system, features that had mostly been limited to mainframes to that point.

Project Genie

GENIE time-sharing system
It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940.

RSTS/E

RSTSRSTS-11
RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, initially developed by Evans Griffiths & Hart of Boston, and acquired by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers.

CompuServe

CompuServe Information ServiceTapCISOzWin
The company's objectives were twofold: to provide in-house computer processing support to Golden United Life Insurance; and to develop as an independent business in the computer time-sharing industry, by renting time on its PDP-10 midrange computers during business hours.