Timeline of the far future

far future40,000 years296,000 yearsfar-future12,00013th millennium AD18,71322nd millennium27,00050,000
While the future can never be predicted with absolute certainty, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of some far-future events, if only in the broadest outline.wikipedia
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Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
All projections of the future of Earth, the Solar System, and the universe must account for the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy, or a loss of the energy available to do work, must rise over time.
Ultimately, over the course of tens of billions of years, it is likely that the Sun will be left with none of the original bodies in orbit around it.

Niagara Falls

NiagaraFallsNIA
According to the [[Timeline of the far future#Future of the Earth, the Solar System and the Universe|timeline of the far future]], in roughly 50,000 years Niagara Falls will have eroded the remaining 32 km to Lake Erie and ceased to exist.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
This matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the Moon's distance from Earth is gradually increasing.

KEO

KEO is the name of a proposed space time capsule which was to have been launched in 2003 carrying messages from the citizens of present Earth to humanity 50,000 years from now, when it would re-enter Earth's atmosphere.

Voyager Golden Record

Golden RecordGolden DiskThe Voyager Golden Record: 40th Anniversary Edition
Although neither Voyager spacecraft is heading toward any particular star, Voyager 1 will pass within 1.6 light-years' distance of the star Gliese 445, currently in the constellation Camelopardalis, in about 40,000 years.

Rosetta Project

Wearable Rosetta discRosetta discRosetta Stone (project)
The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 12,000 AD; it is run by the Long Now Foundation.

Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chainEmperor SeamountsHawaiian – Emperor seamount chain

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury

Neptune

NeptunianAtmosphere of NeptuneNeptune-mass

Big Bang

Big Bang theoryThe Big Bangbig-bang
Therefore, matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant.

Andromeda–Milky Way collision

collision of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxiesMilkomedabegin to collide
In the far future, roughly 150 billion years from now, the remaining galaxies of the Local Group will coalesce into this object, that being the next evolutionary stage of the local group of galaxies.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld

Voyager 1

Voyager IVoyagerMariner 11
To date five spacecraft (Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 and New Horizons) are on trajectories which will take them out of the Solar System and into interstellar space.
Though it is not heading towards any particular star, in about 40,000 years, it will pass within 1.6 light-years of the star Gliese 445, which is at present in the constellation Camelopardalis.

Voyager 2

2Voyager IIMariner 12
To date five spacecraft (Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 and New Horizons) are on trajectories which will take them out of the Solar System and into interstellar space.
And if undisturbed for 296,000 years, Voyager 2 should pass by the star Sirius at a distance of 4.3 light-years.

Transit of Earth from Mars

Transit of Earthas seen from MarsEarth itself transits the Sun
The simultaneous occurrence of a transit of Venus and a transit of Earth is extremely rare, and will next occur in the year 571,471.

Transit of Venus

transits of VenusVenusVenus transit
Such an event last occurred on 22 September 373,173 BC and will next occur on 26 July 69,163, and again on 29 March 224,508.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
While the future can never be predicted with absolute certainty, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of some far-future events, if only in the broadest outline.

Astrophysics

astrophysicistastrophysicaltheoretical astrophysics
These fields include astrophysics, which has revealed how planets and stars form, interact, and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales; evolutionary biology, which predicts how life will evolve over time; and plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia.

Star

starsstellarmassive star
These fields include astrophysics, which has revealed how planets and stars form, interact, and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales; evolutionary biology, which predicts how life will evolve over time; and plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
These fields include astrophysics, which has revealed how planets and stars form, interact, and die; particle physics, which has revealed how matter behaves at the smallest scales; evolutionary biology, which predicts how life will evolve over time; and plate tectonics, which shows how continents shift over millennia.