Tiridates I of Armenia

Tiridates ITiridatesKing Tiridates I of Armenia
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A;, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.wikipedia
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Arsacid dynasty of Armenia

ArsacidArsacid dynastyArmenia
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A;, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.
Arsacid Kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad dynasty until 62 when Tiridates I secured Arsacid dynasty of Parthia rule in Armenia.

Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)

ArmeniaKingdom of ArmeniaGreater Armenia
Tiridates I (Տրդատ Ա, Trdat A;, Tīridāt; Τιριδάτης, Tiridátes) was King of Armenia beginning in 53 AD and the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.
During the Roman–Parthian Wars, the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia was founded when Tiridates I, a member of the Parthian Arsacid dynasty, was proclaimed King of Armenia in 52.

Vologases I of Parthia

Vologases IVologasesVologeses I
In an agreement to resolve the Roman–Parthian conflict in and over Armenia, Tiridates I (one of the brothers of Vologases I of Parthia) was crowned king of Armenia by the Roman emperor Nero in 66 AD; in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. In 52 AD King Vologases I of Parthia took the opportunity to invade Armenia, conquering Artaxata (Artashat in Armenia) and proclaiming his younger brother Tiridates I as king.
In 52, Vologases I invaded Armenia, conquering Artaxata (Artashat in Armenia) and proclaiming his younger brother Tiridates I as king.

Roman–Iranian relations

Roman relations with the Parthians and SassanidsRoman-Persian relationsByzantine-Sassanian relations
In an agreement to resolve the Roman–Parthian conflict in and over Armenia, Tiridates I (one of the brothers of Vologases I of Parthia) was crowned king of Armenia by the Roman emperor Nero in 66 AD; in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans.
The ensuing war was ended by a compromise which allowed the Parthian prince Tiridates and his descendants to reign in Armenia on condition that he and his successors received their crown from the Roman emperor and ruled as his clients.

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
Even though this made Armenia a client kingdom, various contemporary Roman sources thought that Nero had de facto ceded Armenia to the Parthian Empire.
c. 51–77 AD) planned to invade and place his brother, the later Tiridates I of Armenia, on the throne.

Nero

Emperor NeroNero CaesarNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
In an agreement to resolve the Roman–Parthian conflict in and over Armenia, Tiridates I (one of the brothers of Vologases I of Parthia) was crowned king of Armenia by the Roman emperor Nero in 66 AD; in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans.
Nero began preparing for war in the early years of his reign, after the Parthian king Vologeses set his brother Tiridates on the Armenian throne.

Lesser Armenia

Armenia MinorArmenia PrimaArmenia Secunda
A Hasmonean named Aristobulus was given Lesser Armenia (Nicopolis and Satala) and Sohaemus of Emesa received Armenia Sophene.
Roman influence was first established with Pompey's campaign of 66/65 BC, and again in 59 AD in the Roman–Parthian War campaign of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo; which resulted in the deposition of Tiridates I.

Vonones II

Vonones II of ParthiaVonones
Tiridates I was one of the sons born to Vonones II, king of Media Atropatene and later king of Parthia, by a Greek concubine.
From a Greek concubine, Vonones II had 5 sons who held the thrones of Parthia, Media Atropatne and Armenia: Pacorus, Vologases I, Osroes I, Tiridates I and Mithridates V.

Mithraism

MithrasMithraicMithraic mysteries
In the early 20th century, Franz Cumont speculated that Tiridates was instrumental in the development of Mithraism which became the main religion of the Roman Army and spread across the whole empire.
The historian Dio Cassius (2nd to 3rd century CE) tells how the name of Mithras was spoken during the state visit to Rome of Tiridates I of Armenia, during the reign of Nero.

Rhadamistus

Rhadamiste
In 51 AD the Roman procurator of Cappadocia, Julius Paelignus, invaded Armenia and ravaged the country, then under an Iberian usurper Rhadamistus.
He punished those Armenian cities that had surrendered to the Parthians, which soon revolted and replaced him with the Parthian prince Tiridates I in 55.

Roman–Parthian War of 58–63

Battle of RhandeiaRoman–Parthian Warcampaigns
Paetus was an incapable commander and suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Rhandeia in 62, losing the legions of XII Fulminata commanded by Calvisius Sabinus and IV Scythica commanded by Lucius Funisulanus Vettonianus.
Armenia had been a Roman client state since the days of Emperor Augustus, but in 52/53, the Parthians succeeded in installing their own candidate, Tiridates, on the Armenian throne.

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo

CorbuloCn. Domitius CorbuloDomitius Corbulo
Unhappy with the growing Parthian influence at their doorstep, Roman Emperor Nero sent General Corbulo with a large army to the east in order to restore Roman client kings.
After some delay, and reinforced by troops from Germania, in 58 AD he took the offensive, and attacked Tiridates, King of Armenia and brother of Vologases I of Parthia.

Octavia (opera)

OctaviaOctavia'' (opera)
Tiridates I is one of the principal characters in George Frideric Handel's opera Radamisto and Reinhard Keiser's opera Octavia.

Artaxata

ArtashatArtashat (ancient city)ancient city of Artashat
In 52 AD King Vologases I of Parthia took the opportunity to invade Armenia, conquering Artaxata (Artashat in Armenia) and proclaiming his younger brother Tiridates I as king.
After Emperor Nero recognized Tiridates I as king of Armenia in 66, he granted him 50 million sesterces and sent architects and construction experts to help in the reconstruction of the ruined city.

Gladiatrix

female gladiatorfemale gladiatorsgladiatrices
Ethiopian women, men and children fought as gladiators and gladiatrices at the games to impress the Armenian king.
In 66 AD, Nero had Ethiopian women, men and children fight at a munus to impress King Tiridates I of Armenia.

Julia Iotapa (daughter of Antiochus IV)

IotapaJulia Iotapa
His son, named Gaius Julius Alexander, married Iotapa, the daughter of Antiochus IV of Commagene and was made King of Cilicia.
Antiochus IV had participated in protecting Armenia with the Romans from Tiridates I of Armenia.

Antiochus IV of Commagene

Antiochus IVAntiochusAntiochus IV Epiphanes
His son, named Gaius Julius Alexander, married Iotapa, the daughter of Antiochus IV of Commagene and was made King of Cilicia. In the spring of 58, Corbulo entered Greater Armenia from Cappadocia and advanced towards Artaxata, while Parasmanes I of Iberia attacked from the north, and Antiochus IV of Commagene attacked from the southwest.
In 55 he received orders from the Roman emperor Nero to levy troops to make war against the Parthians, and in the year 59 he served under General Cn. Domitius Corbulo against King Tiridates I of Armenia, brother of the Parthian King Vologases I of Parthia.

Gladiator

gladiatorsgladiatorialgladiatorial combat
Ethiopian women, men and children fought as gladiators and gladiatrices at the games to impress the Armenian king. Nero was reportedly so impressed by this act that he ordered a gladiatorial games be staged in honor of his guest at Puteolis (present day Pozzuoli, near Naples).
In 66 AD, Nero had Ethiopian women, men and children fight at a munus to impress the King Tiridates I of Armenia.

Tigranes VI of Armenia

Tigranes VITigranesGaius Julius Tigranes
Nero gave the crown to the last royal descendant of the kings of Cappadocia, the grandson of Glaphyra (daughter of Archelaus of Cappadocia) and Alexander of Judea (the brother of Herod Archelaus and the son of Herod the Great), who assumed the Armenian name Tigranes (his uncle was Tigranes V).
Tiridates I ran away from his capital which Corbulo set fire to.

Lucius Caesennius Paetus

CaesenniusCaesennius PaetusGaius Caesennius Paetus
The Roman government declined to accede to these arrangements and sent Lucius Caesennius Paetus, governor of Cappadocia, to settle the question by bringing Armenia under direct Roman administration.
In 62 however, Paetus, at the head of the legions XII Fulminata and IV Scythica suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Rhandeia against the Parthian and Armenian forces of King Tiridates I of Armenia.

Biblical Magi

Three Wise MenMagiThree Kings
It has been suggested that the visit of Tiridates I, an event that greatly impressed contemporaries, was adapted by Christians to become the story of the adoration of the Christ Child by the Three Magi.
A model for the homage of the Magi might have been provided, it has been suggested, by the journey to Rome of King Tiridates I of Armenia, with his magi, to pay homage to the Emperor Nero, which took place in 66 AD, a few years before the date assigned to the composition of the Gospel of Matthew.

Sanatruk

Sanatruces ISanatruces (Sanatruk)King Sanatrouk or Sanadruk
Sanatruk (Սանատրուկ, Latinized as Sanatruces) was a member of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia who succeeded Tiridates I of Armenia as King of Armenia at the end of the 1st century.

Alans

AlanAlaniAlanic
In 72 the Alans, a warlike nomadic Sarmatian tribe, made an incursion into Media Atropatene as well as various districts of northern Armenia.
Josephus reports in the Jewish Wars (book7, ch.7.4) how Alans (whom he calls a "Scythian" tribe) living near the Sea of Azov crossed the Iron Gates for plunder (72AD) and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, and Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I (for whom the above-mentioned inscription was made):

Pacorus of Media Atropatene

Pacorus
Tiridates I and his brother Pacorus, King of Media Atropatene, faced them at a number of battles, during one of which Tiridates I was briefly captured, narrowly escaping being taken alive.
He gave the kingship of Media Atropatene to Pacorus, while the even more politically important kingship of Armenia was given to Vologases I's brother Tiridates.